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Chapter 5

MHR 405 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Equity Theory, Briey, Procedural Justice

Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 405
Frank Miller

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Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Foundations of Employee Motivation
Employee Engagement
!Individual’s emotional and cognitive motivation, particularly a focused, intense, persistent, and purposive effort
towards work related goals
An individual’s emotional and cognitive (logical)motivation, particularly a focused, intense , persistent, and
purposive effort towards work-related goals.
Includes a high level of absorption in the work
often described in terms of self- efficacy
Strong predictor of employee and work unit performance
Drives / Primary needs
Hardwired characteristics of the brain that attempt to keep us in balance by correcting deficiencies
Produce emotions that energize us to act on our environment
are the “prime movers” of behaviour bc. they generate emotions
Drives and emotions translate into felt needs (Goal directed forces that people experience)
1. Your drives (drie to comprehend / defent/ bond) and resulting emotions energize you to ac
2. Your self concept, social norms, past experience direct that energy to goal-directed behaviour
A motivation theory of needs arranged in
hierarchy, whereby people are motivated to fulfill
a higher need as slower one becomes gratified

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Chapter 5
Dismissed by most motivation experts
— people do not progress through the hierarchy as Maslow’s theory predicts
— Evidence indicates that need fulfillments occur more briefly vs. what mallow’s theory suggest
— People don’t fit into a one-size-fits all needs hierarchy // vary from person to person
— People have different value systems
Holistic Perspective — Looks at the bigger picture
Humanistic perspective — Higher order needs are influenced by personal and social influences vs. instincts
Positive perspective — Popularized concept of self- actualization // people are naturally motivated to reach their
A person’s needs can be strengthened or weakened through reinforcement, learning and social conditions
Identified three “learned” needs : Achievement, power and affiliation
— 1. Need for Achievement (nAch)
• People with a strong “need for achievement (nAch) want to accomplishment reasonably challenging goals
through their own effort
• {refer working alone rather than in teams
• Choose tasks with moderate degree of risk
• Desire unambiguous feedback and recognition for their success
• Money is a weak motivator
• Successful entrepreneurs tend to have high each
— 2. Need for Affiliation (NAff)
Desire to seek approval from others, conform to their wives and expectations and avoid conflict and
• Try to project a favourable image of themselves
Actively support others and try to smooth out workplace conflicts
• High nAff generally work well in coordinating roles to mediate conflicts and in sales positions where the
main task is cultivating long-term relations
• Less effective at allocating scarce resources and making other decisions that potentially generate conflict
— 3. Need for Power (nPow)
• Want to exercise control over others / concerned about maintaining leadership position
• Frequently rely on persuasive communication, make more suggestions in meetings, tend to publicly
evaluate situations more frequently
• Two types of nPow
1. Individuals who enjoy their power for its own sake - use it to advance personal interests// wear
their power as a status symbol to have personalized power
2. High need for socialized power — as a means to help others
Needs can be learned
In his achievement motivation program, trainees wrote achievement-oriented satires and practised achievement-
oriented behaviours in business games
detailed achievement plan for the next two years - formed a reference group with other trainees to maintain their
new-found achievement motivation
Results : New businesses, greater community involvement, invested more in expanding their businesses, employed
twice as many people
How : Atered participant self-concept and reinforced achievement experiences

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Chapter 5
Four Drive theory
A motivation theory based on the innate drives to acquire, bond, learn and defend that incorporates both emotions
and rationality
Everyone has the drive to acquire, bond, comprehend and defend
— These drives are a complete set- there are no fundamental drives excluded from the model
Three out of four drives are proactive — We regularly try to fulfill them
One drive is reactive (The drive to defend) — It is triggered by threat
The drives are :
—1. Drive to Acquire — To seek, take, control , retain objects and personal experiences
• Drive to acquire — ie. enhancing one’s self concept through relative status and recognition in society
• the foundation of competition and basis of our need for esteem
• Insatiable
— 2. Drive to bond — drive to form social relationships and develop mutual caring commitments with
• Reason people form social identities by aligning their self- concept with various social groups
• Explain why people who lack social contact are more prone to serious health problems
• Motivates people to cooperate
• Fundamental ingredient in the success of organizations and the development of societies
—3. Drive to Comprehend — Drive to satisfy our curiosity , to know and understand ourselves and the
environment around us
• Related to higher order needs of growth and self- actualization
—4. Drive to Defend — Drive to protect ourselves physically and socially
• The first drive to develop // creates a fight or flight response in the face of personal anger
• Goes beyond protecting our physical self
• ie. defending our relationships, our acquisitions, and our belief system
How Drives Influence Motivation and behaviour
!Four drive theory is derived from recent neuroscience research regarding the emotional marker process
emotions become conscious when they are strong enough
Drive produces emotions , various personal characteristics (self-concept, social norms, experience) interpret these
emotions into goal -directed needs
Evaluating Four Drive Theory
Four drive theory maps well onto the ten dimensions in his circumflex model of personal values
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