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Chapter 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9

MHR 405 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9: Presenteeism, Job Satisfaction, Voicemail

Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 405
Frank Miller
2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9

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Chapter 2 (page 28-48)
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Motivation Ability Role Perceptions Situational Factors
Performance = person (individual characteristics) * situation
(external influences on individual behaviour) is one of the earliest formulas
Performance = ability * motivation known as the “skill-and-will” model
MotivationForces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity, and
persistence of voluntary behaviour
Direction Path along which people engage their effort (steering car)
Intensity Amount of effort allocated to the goal (how much energy on gas
Persistence – Continuation of effort for a certain amount of time (how long you drive to destination)
Ability – Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities needed to successfully complete a task
Aptitudes – Natural talents that help employees learn specific tasks more quickly and perform them better
Learn Capabilities – Skills and knowledge you have acquired (tend to fade over time when not in use)
Competencies – Characteristics that result in superior performance (knowledge, skills, aptitudes, behaviors)
Role Perceptions – Extent to which people understand the job duties/roles assigned to or expected of them
Three Forms Of Role Perception: To perform well, employees must understand…
1. Specific tasks assigned to them, that is, when they know the specific duties or consequences for which they are
2. Priority of their various tasks and performance expectations (quality versus quantity)
3. Preferred behaviors or procedures for accomplishing the assigned task like situations where employees have the
knowledge and skills to perform a task in more than one way
Situational Factors – Employees’ behaviour and performance depend on the situation
Five Types Of Individual Behaviour:
1. Task Performance – Goal-directed behaviors under the individual’s control that support organizational objectives
oTransform raw material into goods and services or support and maintain these technical activities
2. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs) Various forms of cooperation and helpfulness to others that
support the organization’s social and psychological context
oCompanies excel when employees go “the extra mile” beyond their job duties
3. Counterproductive Work Behaviors (CWBs) Voluntary behaviors that have the potential to directly or indirectly
harm the organization
oHarassing coworkers, creating conflicts, stealing, tardiness, wasting resources, etc…
4. Joining/Staying With The Organization
oIf qualified people don’t join and stay with the organization, none of these performance-related behaviors would occur
5. Maintaining Work Attendance
oOrganizations need everyone to show up for work at scheduled times
oPresenteeism Attend work when capacity to work is significantly
diminished by illness or other factors
Five-Factor Model (FFM) Five abstract dimensions representing most personality
traits: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, and
Personality Fairly enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that
characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind those
characteristics (7 years old)
Personality Determinants: Nature Versus Nurture
oNature – Genetic or hereditary origins

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oNurture – Person’s socialization, life experiences, and other forms of interaction with the environment
Jungian Personality Theory And The MBTI
Myers Briggs Type Indicator Instrument designed to measure elements of Jungian personality theory, mainly
preferences about perceiving and judging information
Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung proposed that personality is represented by the individual’s preferences regarding perceiving
and judging information
He explained that perceiving occurs through two competing orientations: Sensing and Intuition. Sensing involves
recognizing information directly through the five senses and intuition relies more on awareness and personal
experience to see relationships among variables
Jung also explained that judging (how people process information or make
decisions based on what they have perceived) consists of two processes:
Thinking and Feeling.
People with…
Thinking orientation rely on rational cause-effect logic and systematic data
collection to make decisions.
Strong feeling orientation rely on their emotional responses to the option presented, as well as how these choices
affect others
Perceiving orientation are open, curious, and flexible; prefer to adapt spontaneously to events as they unfold; and
prefer to keep their options open.
Judging types prefer order and structure and want to resolve problems quickly
Values In The Workplace
Abdoulah: “No matter how much you earn, you’re no better than anyone and they are no better than you.”
Values – Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences for outcomes or course of action in a variety of situations
Views about what is good or bad, right or wrong
Three Value And Personality Trait Differences
1. Values are evaluative
oTells us what we ought to do, whereas personality traits describe what we naturally tend to do
2. Personality traits have minimal conflict with each other, whereas some values oppose other values
oSomeone who values excitement and challenge would have difficulty also valuing stability and moderation
3. Values are influenced more by socialization whereas personality traits are more innate
Value System – People arrange values into a hierarchy of preferences
Personal Values – Values exist only within individuals
Shared Values – Team, department, organization, profession, or entire society might hold the same or similar values
Types Of Values
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