MHR 405 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Force-Field Analysis, Selective Perception, Behavioural Sciences
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Chapter 13 – organizational change and development
Planned organizational change – process by which organizations move from their present state
to some desired future state to increase their effectiveness.
First order, incremental (development) change – is change that involves adjustments in
systems, processes, or structures with the purpose of maintaining or developing the
Second order, discontinuous (transformational) change – is change in which the organization
moves to a radically different and sometimes unknown, future state.
Targets of change
•Changing the organizational structure: how an organization’s work is designed, and how
departments, divisions, and the overall organization are designed.
1. Downsizing – the process by which managers streamline the
organizational hierarchy and lay off managers and workers to reduce
2. Mergers and acquisitions – Smooth and a problematic merger most often
depends upon the degree to which senior managers take the necessary
steps to blend cultures of the merged companies, often employing
“merger culture” experts to help them.
•Changing the organization technology, work processes, and tasks – Techniques such as
total quality management reengineering, and flexible manufacturing have become
common targets of change, in response to increasing competition and quality.
1. Reengineering – the process by which manager’s redesign how tasks are
bundled into roles and functions to improve organizational effectiveness.
•Changing people’s attitudes and the organizational culture – is defined as a pattern of
basic assumptions that are considered valid and are taught to new members as the way
to perceive, think, and feel in the organization.
Challenges to effective change management
•Individual reactions against organizational change – people often react to change as a
rational response based on self-interest.
1. Feat of the unknown
2. Fear of loss
3. Fear of failure and active inertia
4. Reluctance to break routines and active inertia
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