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Chapter 2

MHR 405 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Basic Belief, Deontological Ethics, Assertiveness

Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 405
Frank Miller

of 6
Chapter 2: Creating a Positive Work Environment: Attitudes, Values, Ethics
This chapter focuses on the individual differences that have an impact on creating a positive
work environment: attitudes, values and ethics.
Why is it important to create a positive work environment?
Modern day employees want balance in their life, most are willing to sacrifice salary to
do so.
Modern day employees are no longer concerned with making a long term relationship
with employers.
Organizational sustainability is not just about profits, it is about the organization’s
responsibility to the community in which it operates , to its people who they employ and it
is about how the organization transacts business from an ethical and moral perspective.
High performing organizations: Organizations that produce extraordinary results and
sustain this performance overtime and over changing market conditions. These
organizations adapt industry best practices while preserving their unique process. They
view failures as opportunities for continuous learning
Triple bottom line: an expanded baseline for measuring performance, adding social and
environmental dimensions to the traditional monetary benchmark.
Best-Practice methods: processes, practices and systems identified in an organization
that are performed exceptionally well and are widely recognized as improving an
organization’s performance and efficiency in specific areas
Signature processes: processes that have evolved from management’s values and
aspirations that embody a company’s history.
3 Critical elements all organizations must consider if they are serious about creating and
sustaining a positive place to work.
1. Organizational Environment
2. The components of the job
3. Individual characteristics
Organization Environment: In a positive environment the culture is strong adaptive and
strategically appropriate, leaders influence, motivate, and enable others, they create a
visions and missions and help people understand what they can do to contribute.
Organization values are clear and communication is open and supports knowledge
management, people solving and effective coordination of work.
Components of a job: Organizations that create positive work environments clearly
articulate the purpose of the job, how the job contributes to the success of the
organization, how an individual can contribute to that success and jobs are effectively
designed to optimize employee motivation.
Understanding Individual differences: High performance organizations understand the
differences that their employees bring and leverage(control) the differences. These
differences might include the different values and ethical perspectives the employees
might have.
Values: Enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is
personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end
state of existence.
Values guide behaviour by providing criteria that an individual can use to evaluate and
define actions and events in the work surrounding them.
Instrumental Values: Represent the acceptable behaviours to be used in achieving some
end state.
Terminal Values: Values that represent the goals to be achieved or the end states of
Many diverse characteristics can influence values. Arguably, one of the most significant
factors is one’s cultural heritage.
Understanding how cultural differences can affect behaviour is an important aspect of
organizational behaviour research.
According to the Globe Project there are 9 critical dimensions of analyzing differences
across cultures
1. Power Distance
2. Future Orientation
3. Gender equalitarianism
4. Uncertainty avoidance
5. Assertiveness
6. Institutional emphasis on collective versus individualism
7. In group collectivism
8. Performance orientation
9. Humane orientation
Power Distance: The degree of inequality among people that the population considers
normal, from relatively equal. Less distance than less hierarchy.
Individualism Versus Collectivism: The degree in which individual are expected to be
part of a group in their organization or in their society. This dimension focuses on
whether society’s institutions favour autonomy of collective behaviour
In-Group Collectivism: The extent that members in a society consider membership within
their immediate social group to be important. This group might include family, circle of
friends or an organization.
Assertiveness: The extent to which a society encourages people to confrontational and
assertive with respect to their views
Gender Differentiation: Refers to how a society views gender role differences.
Performance Orientation: Refers to how much a society values initiative, continuous
improvement and exceptional performance.
Uncertainty Avoidance: The degree to which people in a country prefer structured over
unstructured situations. Strong tendency toward applying a consistent set of rules and
laws to manage situations.
Future Orientation: Refers to the extent to which a society supports and rewards future
related to the future. Exhibit ability to plan for long term and make investments that
yielded long term gain and able to delay gratification.
Humane Orientation: The degree to which a society encourages and rewards individuals
for being altruistic, caring and generous.
Attitudes: Psychological tendency expressed by evaluating an entity with some degree
of favour or disfavour. It is the basis of an evaluative of an evaluative response to a
situation , event or issue.
Attitudes are formed on the basis of an individual’s affective or emotional experience.
Attitudes are direct learning experience and social learning.
Researches consider attitudes as a major indicator for the future success of an
Psychological contract: The unwritten set of expectations between employees and
employers regarding implicit rights and obligations of each party regarding the
employment relationship.