MHR 405 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Team Dynamics, Work Unit, Brainstorming

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3 Feb 2016
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MHR 405: Chapter 8
Team Dynamics
Teams and Informal Groups
Teams: groups of two or more people who interact and inuence each
other and are mutually accountable for achieving common goals
associated with organizational objectives.
Informal Groups: Groups include people assembled together, who
have little or no interdependence on each other. Ex: friends you meet
for lunch.
-informal groups are not created to service organizational objectives.
-These groups provide emotional and informational social support
Advantages and Disadvantages of Teams:
-teams make better decisions, develop better products and services
and create a more engaged workforce than do employees working
alone
-team members can quickly share information and organize tasks
-people are more motivated in teams because they are accountable
to fellow team members
The Challenges of Teams
oThe main problem with teams is that they have additional costs
called
process losses
: which are resources including time and
energy expended towards team development and maintenance
rather than the task.
o
Brook’s Law:
says that adding more people to a late software project
only makes it later.
o
Social Loa(ng:
the problem that occurs when people exert less
e)ort when working in teams than working alone.
A Model of Team E$ectiveness:
oA team is e)ective when it bene(ts the organization, its members
and its own survival.
oMost teams exist to serve some organization objective so
e)ectiveness is partly measured on the achievement of those
objectives
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oA team’s e)ectiveness relies on the satisfaction and well-being of its
members.
oTeams ourish when organized around work processes because this
structure increases interaction and interdependence among team
members and reduced interaction with people outside the team
Teams Design Elements
Task Characteristics:
oOne task characteristic that is important for teams is task
interdependence: the extent to which team members must share
materials, information, or expertise to perform their jobs.
-Three Levels of task interdependence:
#1 Pooled Interdependence:
this is the lowest level and this occurs
when an employee or work unit shares a common resource. This would
work in a team setting where each member works alone but shares
raw materials.
#2 Sequential Interdependence:
the output of one person becomes the
direct input for another person or unit.
#3 Reciprocal Interdependence:
work output is exchanged back and
forth among individuals, produces the highest degree of
interdependence.
oHigh task interdependence also motivates most people to be part of
the team.
Team Composition:
oThere is a 5 C’s Model: cooperation, coordinating, communicating,
comforting, and conict resolving. The (rst 3 competencies are
mainly task related, while the last two primarily assist team
maintenance.
Team Diversity:
oIn some situations, diverse teams are better than homogeneous
teams at making decisions. People from di)erent backgrounds tend
to see a problem or opportunity from di)erent angles.
oDiverse teams have a broader pool of technical competencies.
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