MHR 405 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Big Five Personality Traits, Job Performance, Agreeableness
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MHR 405: Chapter 2
Individual Behaviour, Personality and Values
Mars Model of Individual Behaviour and Performance
Performance = person x situation
where person includes individual
characteristics and situation represents external inuences on the
oAnother frequently mentioned formula is
performance = ability x
sometimes also known as the “skill and will model”
oThis formula elaborates two speci!c characteristics within the
person that inuence individual performance
oAbility, motivation, situation and role perceptions are four key direct
predictors of individual behaviour and performance. > MARS =
motivation, ability, role perception and situation.
oAll four factors are critical inuences on an individual’s voluntary
behaviour and performance. If any factor is low in a situation, the
employee will not perform well at the task given.
oMotivation, ability and role perceptions are clustered together in the
model because they are located within the person, situational
factors are external to the individual but still a(ect his/her
1. Employee Motivation
the forces within a person that a(ect his/her direction,
intensity, and persistence of voluntary behaviour. Motivation is goal
directed, not random.
• Direction refers to the path along which people engage their e(ort.
oThe second element of motivation is called
. Which is the
amount allocated to the goal. Intensity is all about how much people
push themselves to complete a task.
oMotivation involves varying levels of
, that is continuing
the e(orts for a certain amount of time.
2. Ability: The natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to
successfully complete a task.
• Aptitudes are the natural talents that help employees learn speci!c
tasks more quickly and perform them better.
• Learned capabilities are the skills and knowledge that you currently
possess. These capabilities include the physical and mental skills and
knowledge you have acquired.
• Aptitudes and learned capabilities are closely related to
Competencies are skills, knowledge, aptitudes and
other personal characteristics that lead to superior performance.
How to match a person’s competencies with the job’s task
1. Select applicants who already demonstrate the required
2. Provide training, which has strong inuence on individual
performance and organizational e(ectiveness.
3. Redesign the job so that employees are given tasks only within
their current learned capabilities.
3. Role Perceptions: The extent to which people understand the job
duties assigned to or expected of them.
oThese perceptions are critical because they guide the employee’ s
direction of e(ort and improve coordination with co-workers,
suppliers and stake holders.
oThere are 3 ways in which employees are clear or unclear about
their role obligations:
1. Employees have role perceptions when they understand the
speci!c tasks assigned to them.
2. When employees understand the priority of various tasks and
3. Understanding the
or procedures for
accomplishing the assigned tasks.
Types of Individual Behaviour
Most common types of individual behaviour include:
organizational citizenship, counterproductive work behaviour, joining
and staying with the organization,
maintaining work attendance.
a) Task Performance: refers to the goal-directed behaviour under the
individual’s that support organizational objectives. Task
performance behaviours transform raw materials into goods and
services or support and maintain these technical activities.
b) Organizational Citizenship Behaviours: various forms of cooperation
and helpfulness to others that support the organization’s social and
• companies excel when employees go the extra mile beyond their
required job duties.
c) Counterproductive Work Behaviours: Voluntary behaviours that have
the potential to directly or indirectly harm the organization. Ex:
harassing coworkers, creating unnecessary conict, taking short
cuts that dictate risk, etc.
d) Joining and Staying with the Company: Companies survive and
thrive not just by hiring people with talent or potential, but also
need to ensure that these employees stay with the company.
Companies with a high turnover su(er because of the high cost of