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Chapter 2

MHR 405 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Low Countries, Future Orientation, Job Satisfaction


Department
Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 405
Professor
Frank Miller
Chapter
2

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Chapter 2 – Creating a Positive Work Environment: Attitudes,
Values, Ethics
Why is it Important to Create a Positive Work Environment?
- Employees today are willing to give up 21 percent of their work hours and salary to achieve
more balance in their person and work lives
-High-performing organizations: organizations that produce extraordinary results and sustain
this performance over time and over changing market conditions. These organizations adapt
industry practices while preserving their unique processes. They view failures as
opportunities for continuous learning
-Triple bottom line: an expanded baseline for measuring performance, adding social and
environmental dimensions to the traditional monetary benchmark
-Best-practice methods: the processes, practices and system that an organization does
particularly well and that are widely recognized as improving the organization’s performance
and efficiency in specific areas
What Does a Positive Work Environment Look Like?
- Three critical elements all organizations must consider in creating a positive place to work:
1. Understanding Individual Differences (chapters 2 and 3)
2. The Job (chapters 4, 5, and 6)
3. Organizational Environment (7, 8, 9, 11, and 13)
Organizational Environment
- Culture is strong, adaptive, and strategically appropriate; leaders influence, motivate, and
enable others, they create a vision and mission and help people understand what they can do
to contribute
Components of a Job
- Organizations that create positive work environments clearly articulate the purpose of the job
how the job contributes to the success of the organization, and how an individual can
contribute to that success and they effectively design the jobs to optimize employee
motivation
Understanding Individual Differences
- Organizations need to understand the differences that their employees bring and leverage
these differences. These differences reflect the values that employees possess, the attitudes
employees express within the workplace and understanding an employee’s personality traits
and how employees respond to situations from an emotional and ethical perspective
Values
- The key source of individual differences is employee values
-Values: enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is
personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of
existence
- Values exist at a deep level and are broad feelings about what is good or bad, right or wrong,
acceptable or not
- Values guide behaviour
Instrumental and Terminal Values

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-Instrumental values: values that represent the acceptable behaviours to be used in achieve
some end state
-Terminal values: values that represent the goals to be achieved or end states of existence
Factors That Influence Values
- Primary diversity factors
oAge
oGender
oPhysical attributes
oRace/ethnicity/culture
- Secondary diversity factors
oCareer stage
oMarital status
oEducational background
oReligious belief
oWork experience
Cultural Differences in Values
- Using Hofstede’s 5 main dimensions of cross-cultural values
1. Power distance
2. Individualism versus collectivism
3. Masculinity versus femininity
4. Uncertainty avoidance
5. Long- versus short-term orientation
- Using GLOBE projects 9 critical dimensions
1. Assertiveness
2. Future orientation
3. Gender equalitarianism
4. Uncertainty avoidance
5. Power distance
6. Institutional emphasis on collectivism versus individualism
7. In-group collectivism
8. Performance orientation
9. Humane orientation
- Exhibit 2.3 pg. 40
Power Distance
-Power distance: the degree of inequality among people that a culture considers normal
- Refers to the differences expressed in a society with respect to status, authority, and wealth –
the degree of inequality among people that the population considers normal, from relatively
equally (small power distance) to very different (large power distance)
- Countries that ranked high: Russia, Spain, and Thailand
- Countries that ranked low: Netherlands, Denmark, Israel
Individualism versus Collectivism
-Individualism versus collectivism: the degree to which individuals are expected to be part of a
group in their organization or in their society
- High countries: Denmark, Singapore, Japan, Sweden, expect individuals to participate in
group activities
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- Low countries: Greece, Italy, Argentina, value autonomy, and individualism, and individual
goals
In-Group Collectivism
-In-group collectivism: the extent to which members of a society take pride in membership in
their immediate social group
- High countries: china, Philippines, India and Iran, indicate societies in which family and close
relationships are highly valued and highly regarded
- Low countries: Denmark, New Zealand, and Sweden, in which the weight of one’s inner circle
is not considered as important as other cultural considerations
Assertiveness
-Assertiveness: the extent to which a society encourages people to be confrontational and
assertive with respect to their views
- High countries: Spain, United States, Germany
- Low countries: Sweden, New Zealand, and Switzerland
- Assertive countries are competitive
Gender Differentiation
-Gender differentiation: the extent to which a society views gender roles as different
- High countries: Egypt, India, and Turkey, they accord men higher social status than women
- Low: Canada, Denmark, Hungary, and Poland, women were accorded a higher status in
society, a stronger role in decision making, and they tended to hold positions of power and
authority
Performance Orientation
-Performance orientation: the degree to which a society values initiative, continuous
improvement, and exceptional performance
- High: Singapore, Switzerland, Hong Kong, Canada, US
- Low: Greece, Russia, Italy
Uncertainty Avoidance
-Uncertainty avoidance: the degree to which people in a country prefer structured over
unstructured situations
- High: Germany, Denmark, Switzerland, demonstrate a strong tendency toward applying a
consistent set of rules and laws to manage situations
- Low: Russia, Greece and Venezuela are more tolerant of ambiguity and not so structured in
their approach
Future Orientation
-Future orientation: the extent to which a society supports and rewards future-related
behaviours
- High: Canada, Netherlands, and Switzerland demonstrated a propensity to save for the future
- Low: Russia, Italy, and Poland
Humane Orientation
-Humane orientation: the degree to which a society encourages and rewards individuals for
being altruistic, caring, and generous
- High: Malaysia, Ireland, and the Philippines demonstrate a sympathetic and kind approach to
others
- Low: Germany, Spain, Greece, Hungary, and France
Employee Attitudes
- Attitude: a psychological tendency expressed by evaluation an entity with some degree of
favour or disfavour. It is the bases of an evaluative response to a particular situation, event,
or issue
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