oRelationship (affective) conflict: Defined as interpersonal
incompatitibilites that typically include feelings of anger, tension, and
oTask (cognitive) conflict: Differences in viewpoints and opinions
pertaining to group task. Evident when there are disagreements over
different ideas, differences of opinions, and differences about the content of
decisions. Value conflicts are those that arise out of opposing principles or
ideals involved in carrying out a task, and often need the help of a mediator
or facilitator to get resolved.
oProcess Conflict: Controversy about aspects of how task accomplishment
will proceed. High performing teams had low but increasing levels of process
conflict, low levels of relationship conflict that rose slightly as their deadlines
got closer, and moderate levels of task conflict at the midpoint of group
interaction. Shared value systems, high levels of trust, and open discussions
produced the ideal conflict pattern.
oAccording to Tjosvold, we need to integrate our reason and emotion as well as
task and relationship issues in order to effectively deal with important
interpersonal conflicts effectively.
oTjosvold argue for the conflict positive organization
Organizational Manifestations of Conflict
•Interorganizational: Conflict that occurs between two or more organizations.
oCompetition, Corporate Takeovers, Mergers and Acquisitions, and New
Organizational Arrangements such as strategic alliances often heighten
oEXAMPLE: Conflict between Napster, the Internet music service company, and
several records companies is an example of interorganizational conflict.
•Intergroup: Conflict occurs between groups or departments.
oBecoming more common between “turf wars” between managers.
oDevelop an “us against them” mentality where each sees the other team as the
oCan lead to win-lose outcomes, and negative consequences like territoriality,
aggression, and prejudice.
oCan sometimes lead to functional outcomes such as re-evaluations and
introspection within each group.
•Intragroup: Conflict occurs within a single group or team, and, team conflict occurs
in the storming stage of a team’s development.
•Interpersonal Conflict: Conflict which occurs between two or more people, dynamic
process involving interdependent parties as they experience negative emotional
reactions to the perceived disagreements and interference with he attainment of