oElectronic Performance Monitoring (EPM) - having supervisors electronically
monitor the amount of computerized data an employee is processing per day and
thereby his or her performance.
Rating Scale Problems
•Unclear performance standards - an appraisal scale that is too open to
interpretation of traits and standards
•Halo effect - the problem that occurs when a supervisor's rating of an employee on
one trait biases the rating of that person on other traits
•Central tendency - a tendency to rate all employees in the middle of the scale
•Strictness/leniency - problem that occurs when a supervisor has a tendency to rate
all employees either low or high
•Appraisal bias - tendency to allow individual differences such as age, race, sex, etc.
to affect the appraisal rating
•Recency effect - rating error that occurs when ratings are based on most recent
•Similar-to-me bias - tendency to give higher performance ratings to those who are
perceived to be similar to the rater
How to avoid Appraisal problems
3 ways to avoid appraisal problems
1. Raters must be familiar with the problems just discussed. Understanding the
problem can help avoid it.
2. Raters must choose the right appraisal tool.
3. Training supervisors to eliminate rating errors.
Who should do the Appraising
•360-degree Appraisal - multiple raters including peers, employees reporting to the
appraisee, supervisors, etc.
Types of Interviews
Appraisal Interview Type Appraisal Interview
Satisfactory performance - promotable employee Make development plans
Satisfactory performance - unpromotable
employee Maintain performance
Unsatisfactory performance - correctable Plan correction