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MHR 523 Chapter Notes -Industrial Engineering, Job Analysis, Step One

Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 523
Margaret Yap

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MHR523 – Chapter 4
Organizing Work:
Organizational Structure – The formal relationships among jobs in an organization
Organization Chart – Asnapshot of the firm, depicting the organization's structure in chart
form at a particular point in time. Three basic types:
Bureaucratic – Top-down management approach, many levels, highly specialized jobs, focus
on independent performance
Flat – Decentralized management approach, few levels, broadly defined job descriptions,
emphasis on teams and on customer service
Boundaryless – Joint ventures with customers, suppliers, and/or competitors, emphasis on
teams whose members may cross organizational boundaries
Job Design:
Job Design – The process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform a
specific job
Job – A group of related activities and duties, held by a single employee or a number of incumbents
Position – The collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person
Specialization and Industrial Engineering Considerations
Work Simplification – An approach to job design that involves assigning most of the
administrative aspects of work to supervisors and managers, while giving lower-level employees
narrowly defined tasks to perform according to methods established and specified by
Not effective in a changing environment, or one where employees want challenges
Industrial Engineering – A field of study concerned with analyzing work methods; making work
cycles more efficient by modifying, combining, rearranging, or eliminating tasks; and
establishing time standards.
Focus on industrial engineering can lead to human considerations being neglected.
Behavioural Considerations
Job Enlargement (Horizontal Loading) – A technique to relieve monotony and boredom that
involves assigning workers additional tasks at the same level of responsibility to increase the
number of tasks they have to perform
Job Rotation – Another technique to relieve monotony and employee boredom that involves
systematically moving employees from one job to another
Job Enrichment (Vertical Loading) – Any effor that makes an employee's job more rewarding or
satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties
Job Characteristics Model – Proposes that employee motivation and satisfaction are directly
linked to five core characteristics:
1. Skill Variety – Degree to which the job requires a person to do different tasks
2. Task Identity – Degree to which the job requires completion of an identifiable piece of
3. Task Significance – Degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives and
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