MHR 523 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Career Development, Management Development, Action Learning

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24 May 2011
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Chapter 9 Career Development
Career development: lifelong series of activities (workshops etc.)
Career planning: deliberate process through which one becomes aware of personal skills,
interests, knowledge, etc.
Roles in Career Development
Individual is responsible for their own career. Use 4 skills:
oSelf motivation
oIndependent learning
oEffect time and money management
Managers and employers play a role in individuals career development too
Factors that affect career choices
Identify career stage:
oGrowth stage: birth to 14. Develops self-concept by identifying with and interacting with
oExploration stage: approximately 15-24. Explores various occupational alternatives. By
end of period appropriate choice is made, and person tries entry-level job
oEstablishment stage: approximately 24-44. Suitable occupation is found, earns permanent
place in chosen field
oMaintenance stage: approximately 45-65. Secures his/her place in the world of work
oDecline stage: retirement. Nowadays, work much longer and embark new careers after
Identifying occupational orientation
oRefer to textbook: page 243
Identify skills and aptitudes:
oFor career planning purposes, aptitudes are usually measured with a test battery, such as
general aptitude test battery (GATB). Measures various aptitudes, including intelligence
and mathematical ability
Identify a career anchor:
oConcern/value that you will not give up if choice has to be made
oRefer to types in textbook: page 245
Responsibilities of the organization:
Provide realistic job previews
Avoid reality shock
Providing challenging initial jobs
Be demanding: Pygmalion effectthe more supervisor expects and the more confident and
supportive he/she is, the better new employees will perform
Provide periodic developmental job rotation
Provide career-oriented performance appraisals
Provide career planning workshops
oInclude self assessment, environmental assessment, goal setting and action planning
Provide opportunities for mentoring
Become a learning organization
Managing transfers and promotions
Managing transfers:
oProviding reassurances that relocation costs will be covered is often no longer enough to
persuade employees to upset their lifestyle, spouses careers, and childrens activities.
Hence, companies are now offering spousal support to encourage acceptance of transfers
Making promotion decisions:
oDecision 1 – is seniority or competence the rule?
oDecision 2 – how is competence measured?
oDecision 3 – is the process formal or informal?
oDecision 4 – vertical, horizontal, or other career path?
Management development
Any attempt to improve current or future management performance by imparting knowledge,
changing attitudes, or increasing skills
Process consists of:
oAssessing the companys HR needs to achieve its strategic objective
oCreating a talent pool
oDeveloping the managers themselves
Succession planning:
oSenior-level and critical strategic job openings are planned for and eventually filled
Career development for older workers second middle age”:
oAdopt a new attitude, discard stereotypes
oProvide career counseling
oInvest in training and development
oHonor the need for work/life balance
On-the-job management development techniques:
oDevelopmental job rotation: moving from one department to next to broaden experience
and identifying weak/strong points
oCoaching/understudy approach
oAction learning: trainees work full time, analyzing and solving problems in other
Off-the-job management development techniques:
oCase study method
oManagement games: compete in small groups
oOutside seminars
oCollege/university related programs:
Executive development programs, individualized courses, degree programs
Sabbaticals: periods of time off to pursue a higher degree or to upgrade skills
oBehavior modeling: modeling, role-playing, social reinforcement, transfer of training
oIn-house development centres