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Chapter 4

MHR 523 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Job Analysis, Job Enrichment, Job Design

Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 523
Margaret Yap

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Designing and Analyzing Jobs – Chapter 4
Job- A group of related activities and duties, held by a single employee or a number of
Position- The collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person
Job Analysis - The procedure for determining the tasks, duties and responsibilities of
each job, and the human attributes ( in terms of knowledge, skills and abilities)
required to perform it
Organizational Structure - The formal relationships among jobs in an organization
Organization chart – A snapshot of the firm, depicting the organization’s structure in
chart form at a particular point in time
Process chart- A diagram showing the flow of inputs to and outputs from the job under
Job design- The process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required
to perform a specific job
Work simplification - An approach to job design that involves assigning most of the
administrative aspects of work (such as planning and organizing) to supervisors and
managers, while giving lower-level employees narrowly defined tasks to perform
according to methods establishes and specified by management
Industrial Engineering- A field of study concerned with analyzing work methods,
making work cycles more efficient by modifying, combining, rearranging, or eliminating
tasks and establishing time standards
Job enlargement(horizontal loading) – A technique to relieve monotony and boredom
that involves assigning workers additional tasks at the same level of responsibility to
increase the number of tasks they have to perform
Job rotation - A technique to relieve monotony and employee boredom that involves
systematically moving employees from on job to another.
Job enrichment (vertical loading) – Any effort that makes an employee’s job more
rewarding or satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties
Ergonomics- An interdisciplinary approach that seeks to integrate and accommodate
the physical needs of workers into the design of jobs. It aims to adapt the entire job
system – the work, environment, machines, equipment’s and processes – to match
human characteristics

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Competencies - Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of
a job
Competency-based job analysis - Describing a job in terms of the measurable,
observable behavioural competencies an employee must exhibit to do a job well
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) - A questionnaire used to collect quantifiable
data concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs
Functional Job Analysis - A quantitative method for classifying jobs based on types
and amounts of responsibility for data, people and things. Performance standards and
training requirements are also identified.
Dairy/log - Daily listings made by employees of every activity in which they engage,
along with the time each activity takes
National Occupational Classification (NOC)- A reference tool for writing job
descriptions and job specifications. Complied by the federal government, it contains
comprehensive, standardized descriptions of about 40 000 occupations and the
requirements for each.
Occupation- A collection of jobs that share some or all of a set of main duties
Job description - A list of the duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships and
working conditions of a job – one product of a job analysis
Job specification - A list of the “human requirements”, that is, the requisite knowledge,
skills, and abilities needed to perform the job- another products of a job analysis
Physical demands analysis – Identification of the senses used and the type,
frequency, and amount of physical effort involved in a job
Learning objectives’
1. Explain the steps in job analysis
Step 1 – Review Relevant Background Information
Reviewing organization charts, process charts, existing job descriptions
Reviewing the organizations strategic goals
Step 2 – Select jobs to be analyzed
Selection of representative positions and jobs to be analyzed (necessary when
there are many incumbents in a job and when some have similar jobs)
Step 3 – Collecting job analysis information
Collect information a bout the duties, responsibilities and requirements of the job;
bot quantitative and qualitative
Joint effort by HR, the incumbents and their supervisor
HR observe and analyze – incumbent and supervisor review and verify
Step 4 – Review the information collected with the incumbents and their
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