Study Notes: Chapter 4.docx

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17 Apr 2012

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Chapter Four: Designing and Analyzing Jobs
MHR Notes
Organizational structure refers to the formal relationship among jobs in an organization. An organizational
chart is often used to depict the structure. There are three different types of structures: bureaucratic, flat and
matrix. Bureaucratic uses a top down management approach, has many levels with highly specialized jobs
with narrowly defined job descriptions and there is much focus on independent performance. Flat structures
uses a decentralized management approach consisting of a few levels with broadly defined jobs with general
job descriptions and there is much emphasis on product development.
Job design - the process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform a specific
Job consists of a group of related activities and duties
Position the collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person
Work Simplification an approach to job design that involves assigning most of the administrative aspects of
work (such as planning and organizing) to supervisors and managers, while giving
lower-level employees narrowly defined tasks to perform according to methods
established and specified by management
Industrial engineering a field of study concerned with work methods; making work cycles more efficient by
modifying, combining, rearranging, or eliminating tasks; and establishing time
Job enlargement aka horizontal loading, a technique to relieve monotony and boredom that involves
assigning workers additional tasks at the same level of responsibility to increase the
number of tasks they have to perform
Job rotation another technique to relieve monotony and employee boredom that involves systematically
moving employees from one job to another (company gains by having versatile workers)
Job enrichment aka vertical loading, any effort that makes an employee’s job more rewarding or satisfying
by adding more meaningful tasks and duties (eg. assigning workers more authority)
Team based job designs job designs that focus on giving a team, rather than an individual, a whole and
meaningful piece of work to do and empowering team members to decide among
themselves how to accomplish the work
Team a small group of people who work toward common goals for which they hold joint responsibility and
Ergonomics an interdisciplinary approach that seeks to integrate and accommodate the physical needs of
workers into the design of jobs. It aims to adapt the entire job system the work, environment,
machines, equipment and processes to match human characteristics. Doing such acts result in
eliminating or minimizing products defects, damage to equipment and worker injuries
Job Analysis the procedure for determining the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of each job, and the human
attributes (in terms of knowledge, skills, and abilities) required to perform it
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