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MHR 623 Chapter Notes -R&S Records, Equal Protection Clause, Personality Test

Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 623
Genevieve Farrell

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MHR623 CH 1 – Introduction to Recruitment and Selection
-The goal of R&S is attracting candidates who are a good fit for your job or organization, and not on
reaching the most people.
-During the selection process, interviewers can irritate interviewees by treating the interview as
unimportant, taking an insensitive approach, and asking inappropriate questions. (This can be a risk to
the reputation of an organization); correcting this can enhance the ability of organizations to land the
candidates they want during the selection process.
-One method of interviewing is behavioural interviewing which focuses on gathering descriptions of
behaviour related to competencies critical to performing the job; this helps avoid irrelevant and silly
interview questions.
Why R&S Matters
-Best R&S practices are valid, reliable and legally defensible and comply with relevant legislations. Best
practices involve the ethical treatment of job applicants throughout the recruitment and hiring process. It
results from HR professionals following the accepted standards and principles of professional
associations. The inability to defend R&S practices before a judicial tribunal may have serious financial
consequences for an O.
-Best practices aren’t perfect and may have errors but employers should be able to show that their
procedures are fair and don’t discriminate against protected groups covered by various laws.
-R&S is just one component of the HR system that helps O meet its goals and objectives by producing
competent, committed and effective personnel.
-Recruitment is the generation of an applicant pool for a position or job in order to provide the required
number of candidates for a subsequent selection or promotion program.
-Selection is the choice of job candidates from a previously generated applicant pool in a way that will
meet management goals and objectives as well as current legal requirements.
Social/Economic Factors Affecting Recruitment and Selection
Global Competition, Rapid Advances in Technology and the Internet- employees are now expected to be
computer literate. Many recruitment efforts are now done via Internet
Changing Work-Force Demographics- a significant change is the abolishment of the mandatory retirement at
age 65
The Economic Context- state of the economy can affect staffing
Type of Organization- in a public setting, R&S is more formal and is usually highly unionized; in private sectors
R&S vary and are usually more informal
Organizational Restructuring, Redefining Jobs, Best Practices.
A Systems View of HR
Basic principle 1: HRM must carefully coordinate its activities with the other organizational units and people
for the larger system is to function properly.
Basic principle 2: HR managers must think in systems terms and have the welfare of the whole organization in
-HR needs to be fully in touch with the needs of the larger O and play a strategic role in the O. The role
of HR is to support line units pursuing the central mission of the organization.
R&S and the HR Profession
-HR professionals must keep abreast of developments in their field through continuous learning. They are
responsible for knowing the latest legal and scientific information with respect to R&S. They are
responsible for implementing policies and procedures that are in accordance with accepted professional
An Introduction to Ethical Issues and Professional Standards
-Ethics are the means by which we distinguish what is right from what is wrong, what is moral from
what is immoral, what may be done from what may not be done.

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-Professional standards provide guidance on how HR professionals should behave in certain situations
including the use of employment tests.
-Ethical standards regulate the behaviour of those using employment tests.
With job testing, cautions to be taken include: informed consent, access to test results, privacy and
confidentiality, language and culture (in the right one that the employee is fluent in).
Other concerns: disability, reliability/validity issues.
-Staffing: Process of acquiring, deploying and retaining a workforce of sufficient quantity and quality to
create positive impacts on the organization’s effectiveness.
-Staffing may include: recruitment, screening, selection, employment, legalities, job analysis, ethics,
quality, deployment, retention, strategy & planning and quantity.
-Staffing is the most important HR function that translates organizational strategies into realities (puts
implementation into strategies).
-Staffing involves job analysis (JA)—review, update or create job descriptions & specifications,
recruitment (R)—create a pool of applicants for a vacancy or promotion by identifying and attracting
quality applicants, and Screening & Selection (S&S)—assess, evaluate, make decisions & a final
-Goals of staffing are to hire the most qualified applicant, predict future success on the job and build the
organization’s workforce. To do this, employers match-make—a matching process between an
Organization & an Individual to form an employment relationship that facilitates high organizational and
employee performance and fosters employee morale and a desired organizational culture. Matching the
applicants KSAOs + personal needs/goals with the demands of the O and the job + the rewards.
-Measurement is the process of assigning numbers to objects to represent quantities of an attribute of the
objects. Measurement methods include: behavioural observation, reports from others, unobtrusive
methods and self-report measures.
MHR623 CH 2 – Foundations of Recruitment and Selection I: Reliability and Validity
-The Meiorin case set a precedent to the use of tests in personnel selection that influence hiring standards
today. Research methodology and tests need to validate selection procedures.
The R&S Process
-Employers should have a good idea of the duties that will be performed as part of a job and the level of
performance required for the job success. They must also identify the KSAOS required and
measure/assess the KSAOs of all job applicants.
The Hiring Process
-This can be informal or formal; many are informal.
-Hiring decisions must be defensible, meet legal requirements and professional standards of reliability
and validity. Defensible hiring decisions are not arbitrary; the measures used to make hiring decisions
must be stable and provide job-related information. Decisions need to be based on empirical evidence
and not intuition.
-Construct is an idea or concept constructed or invoked to explain relationships between observations.
The Legal Environment and Selection
-Selection processes that don’t follow human rights legislations/other employment laws may face
penalties and fines. R&S should yield the best qualified candidates within the context of agreed-upon
employment equity programs.
-Employment equity is a term coined in the 1986 federal Employment Equity Act referring to policies
and initiatives to promote employment opportunities for members of designated minority groups.

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Building a Foundation
-A selection system must be built on a sound scientific foundation to move beyond guessing which
candidates fit a job. Two elements to build a sound foundation with respect to R&S are: 1) the system
must be based on solid empirical support; HR personnel must be able to demonstrate the reliability and
validity of their selection systems and 2) any selection system must operate within a legal context.
-Reliability is the degree to which observed scores are free from random measurement errors. Reliability
is an indication of the stability or dependability of a set of measurements over repeated applications of
the measurement procedure. Reliability refers to the consistency of a set of measurements when a testing
procedure is repeated on a population of individuals or groups.
-Systematic errors don’t affect the accuracy of the measurements but rather the meaning, or
interpretations, of those measurements.
Interpreting Reliability Coefficients
-The classical measurement model assumes that any observed score is a combination of a true score
the average score that an individual would earn on an infinite number of administrations of the same test
or parallel versions of the same test, and an error score (measurement error)—the hypothetical
difference between an observed score and a true score.
-This model assumes that the characteristics being measured is stable and that the only reason an
observed score changes from one measurement to another is due to random error. Error scores are
independent of the characteristics being measures; errors are attributable to the measurement process,
not to the individual.
-The reliability coefficient (rxx) is the degree that observed scores, which are made on the same stable
characteristic, correlate with one another. The square of the reliability coefficient (rxx)^2 represents
the proportion of variance in the observed scores that is attributed to true differences on the measured
Measurement error: can be thought of as the hypothetical difference between an individual’s observed score on
any particular measurement and the individual’s true score. Measurement error reduces the usefulness of any set
of measures or the result from any test. It reduces the confidence that we can place in the score the measure
assigns to any particular individual. The standard error of measurement is a statistical index that summarizes
information related to measurement error. This index is estimated from observed scores obtained over a group
of individuals. It reflects how an individual’s score would vary, on average, over repeated observations that
were made under identical conditions.
Factors Affecting Reliability
-Factors that introduce error into any set of measurements can be organized into three categories:
temporary individual characteristics, lack of standardization and chance.
Temporary Individual Characteristics- factors such as health, motivation, fatigue, and emotional state introduce
temporary, unsystematic errors into the measurement process.
Lack of Standardization- lack of such and change in conditions introduce error into the measurement process.
Chance- unique factors to a specific procedure introduces error into the set of measurements.
Methods of Estimating Reliability
-To measure reliability, we have to estimate the degree of variability in a set of scores that is caused by
measurement error. We can obtain this estimate by using two different, but parallel, measures of the
characteristic or attribute. To obtain this (though difficult) we can use several strategies:
Test and Retest- the identical measurement procedure is used to assess the same characteristic over the same
group of people on two different occasions. EX: interviewer invites interviewee back for the second time and
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