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MHR 711 Chapter Notes -Occupational Safety And Health, Interactional Justice, Occupational Stress

Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 711
Gerald Swartz

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Chapter 7:
psychologically healthy and safe workplace – a workplace that promotes workers
psychological well being and actively works to prevent harm to workers’ psychological health
psychosocial model of health- approach to the study of health that focuses on both the social
environment and psychological factors
stressor- an objectively verifiable event that occurs outside the individual that has the potential
to cause stress.
Stress- an individual’s internal response to, or evaluation of, stressors; often characterized by
negative feelings of arousal.
General adaption syndrome- the body’s way of gearing up for fight or flight (i.e., to confront or
run away from a predator).
Moderator- a variable that changes the relationship between two other variables (i.e., risk
factor, buffer, negative affectivity)
Risk factor- a variable that increases the negative effects of stress
Buffer- a variable that protects people from the negative effects of stress
Type A behavior- action-emotion complex that can be observed in any person who is
aggressively involved in achieving more than normal standards
Negative affectivity- a dispositional dimension reflecting persistent individual differences in the
experience of negative emotion.
Strain- the result of stress; it classified into four categories of reactions: psychological, physical,
behavioural, and organizational
Preventive stress management- an approach to managing stress in workplace tat emphasizes
that the health of an organization and its employees are interdependent; encourages the
reduction of stressors in the workplace as well as the recognition and management of
occupational stress and strain.
Primary interventions- stress interventions that involve the reduction or removal of actual
Secondary interventions- stress intervention techniques that focus on minimizing negative
consequences once a person is feeling stress.
Tertiary interventions- stress intervention techniques that are used to help those individuals
who have not been able to manage workplace stress effectively and who are now experiencing
symptoms of strain.
Distributive justice- the perceived fairness of outcomes
Procedural justice- the perceived fairness of decision-making processes
Interactional justice- the perceived fairness of interpersonal treatment
Work-family conflict- a type of inter-role conflict in which the role pressures experienced in the
work and family domains are incompatible.
Behavioural involvement- the amount of time a person spends in a particular role.
Psychological involvement- the degree to which a person identifies with a particular role and
sees the role as a central component of his or her self-concept.
Chapter 8:
violence- an actual physical assault or threat of an assault.
Aggression- behaviour by an individual to physically or psychologically harm a worker
Harassment- engaging in conduct that is known to be unwelcome.
Imminent risk- the short-term risk of violence occurring in the current situation.
Assault cycle- a model suggesting that violence occurs only after a period of escalation.
Chapter 9:
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Instructional systems design (ISD) model of training- a general model of the training
process that incorporates needs analysis, training design and delivery, and training evaluation
and that notes the interdependencies among the three major components of the training
Needs analysis- intended to identify employee and organizational deficiencies that can be
addressed with training
Organizational analysis- an analysis of the entire organization designed to examine its
resources, strategy, and environment in order to assess the organization’s support for training.
Safety climate- employee’s shared perceptions of the importance of safety in the workplace.
Job/task analysis- a component of the training needs analysis process during which the jobs
and specific job tasks that are in need of training are identified and studied.
Person analysis- a component of the training needs analysis process during which individual
employee’s behaviour is studied to identify gaps in performance.
Training objectives- statements regarding the knowledge, skills, and behavioural changes that
trainees should acquire in the training program.
Train the trainer- programs designed to offer subject matter experts in various content areas
skills in program delivery and communication.
WHMIS- Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System; a legislated training program in
the handling of potentially hazardous chemicals in the workplace that ensures Canadian
workers recognize hazardous materials and are knowledgeable in emergency procedures
following a chemical spill.
Training evaluation- a component of the ISD training model designed to assess the value
added for individuals and organizations following the implementation of a training program.
Close call- a series of events that could have led to a safety incident but did not.
Lost-time injuries- a workplace injury that results in the employee missing time from work.
Chapter 10:
Safety behaviours - behaviours leading to safe performance of a particular job.
Safety compliance- the extent to which employees follow safety rules and procedures
Safety participation- the extent to which employees go beyond compliance and engage
proactively and voluntarily to actively improve safety
Motivation- the process that initiates, directs, and sustains behaviour.
Safety motivation- an individual’s willingness to make an effort to enact safety behaviour
Amotivation- complete lack of motivation
Intrinsic motivation- motivation based on one’s interest and enjoyment
Extrinsic motivation- motivation rooted in instrumental reasons for acting.
Autonomous motivation- self-directed motivation reflecting an individual’s free will
Controlled motivation- motivation based in response to pressure
Safety climate- employee’s shared perceptions of the importance of safety in the workplace.
Safety leadership- organizational leadership that is actively focused on and promotes
occupational health and safety.
active transactional leadership- a form of leadership based on the foundation that leaders
actively communicate to followers the tasks that are required to meet experience.
contingent reward- a form of active transactional leadership in which leaders reward
employees who meet their communicated expectations.
management by exception (active)- a form of active transactional leadership in which leaders
monitor worker’s actions and step in with corrective action when needed to prevent serious
problems from occurring.
transformational leadership- highly effective approach to leadership that emphasizes
employee well-being and is characterized by idealized influence, inspirational motivation,
intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration.
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