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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Perception.docx

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MKT 400
Melanie Dempsey

MKT400 Understanding Customers and the New Media CHAPTER 2 Perception INTRODUCTION  Sensation: immediate response of our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and fingers) to such basic stimuli as light, colour, and sound  Perception: the process by which these sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted SENSORY SYSTEMS  Sensory inputs picked up by our five senses constitute the raw data that generate many types of responses  Hedonic consumption: multisensory, fantasy, and emotional aspects of consumer’s interaction within products o Form is function; design is substance  Sensory marketing: marketing strategy that focuses on the impact of sensations on our product experiences o Senses help us decide which products appeal to us – and which ones stand out from a host of similar offerings in the marketplace VISION  Visual elements in advertising, store design, and packaging communicate meaning on the visual channel through a product’s size, styling, brightness, and distinctiveness from competitor’s products  Colours influence our emotions more directly creating feelings of arousal and stimulate appetite (red) and others are more relaxing (blue)  Colours are rich in symbolic value and powerful cultural meaning  Reactions to colour are due to biological differences o Women tend to be drawn to brighter tones and are more sensitive to subtle shadings and patterns because women see colour better than men do o As we age, our eyes mature and our vision takes on a yellow cast and colours look duller  Trade dress: colour combinations associated strongly with a corporation and the company may even be granted exclusive use of these colours SMELL  Odours can stir emotions or create a calming feelings, and evoke memories or relieve stress  Process fragrance cues in the limbic system, the most primitive part of the brain and the place where we experience immediate emotions HEARING  Decomposing brand names into individual sounds called phonemes, cues affect consumer evaluations and convey unique meanings about inherent properties of the product o EX. Consumers infer that brands containing the vowel sound of short [i] weigh less than brands containing the vowel sound of [a]  As people age, many develop aging ear which is a loss of the ability to hear higher-frequency sounds TOUCH  Moods are relaxed or stimulated on the basis of sensations of the skin  Haptic (touch) senses appear to moderate the relationship between product experience and judgement confidence  Kansei engineering: philosophy that translates customers’ feelings into design elements TASTE  Taste receptors contribute to our experience of many products, and people form strong preferences to certain flavours EXPOSURE  Exposure: degree to which people notice a stimulus that is within range of their sensory receptors SENSORY THRESHOLD  Psychophysics: the science that focuses on how the physical environment is integrated into our personal, subjective world  Absolute threshold: minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected on a sensory channel  Differential threshold: ability of a sensory system to detect changes in a stimulus or differences between two stimuli MKT400 Understanding Customers and the New Media o Just noticeable difference (JND): minimum change in a stimulus that can be detected  Weber’s law: the principle that the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater its change must be for it to be noticed o The ratios, not the absolute differences, are important in describing the least perceptible difference in sensory discrimination K = ∆I / I K = constant increase or decrease necessary for the stimulus to be noticed (this varies across the senses) ∆I = minimal change in intensity of the stimulus required to be just noticeable to the person I = intensity of the stimulus before the change occurs  Manufacturers and brand managers endeavour to determine relevant just noticeable difference in their products for two reasons: i. Reductions in product size, increase in product price, or change in packaging are not readily discernible to the public ii. Product improvements are perceived by the public SUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION  Subliminal perception: the processing of information presented below the level of the consumer’s awareness o If you can hear it or see it, it is not subliminal, because the stimulus is above the level of conscious awareness  Embeds: tiny figures that are inserted into magazine advertising by using high-speed photography or airbrushing o These hidden figures, usually of a sexual nature, supposedly exert strong but unconscious influences on innocent readers  For subliminal perception to work, must consider some factors: o Wide differences in threshold levels between individuals o Advertisers lack control over consumers’ distance and position from a screen o Consumer must be paying absolute attention the stimulus o Even if desired effect is induced, it operates only at a very general level ATTENTION  Attention: extent to which the brain’s processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus depending on the stimulus and the recipient  Sensory overload refers to being exposed to far more information than they are able or willing to process 
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