MKT400 Attitude change and interaction communications Chapter 8
The objective relates to persuasion refers to an active attempt to change attitudes. Persuasion is the
central goal of many marketing communication.
Some basic psychological principles that include people to change their minds or comply with a request:
1) Reciprocity: people are more likely to give if they receive. Things like money in mail survey
increase the rate.
2) Scarcity: items become more attractive when they are less available
3) Authority: we tend to believe an authoritative source much more readily.
4) Consistency: people try not to contradict themselves in terms of what they say and do about an
5) Consensus: we often take into account what others are doing before we decide what to do.
The elements of communication
Communications model specifies that a number of elements are necessary for communication
to be achieved.
In this model, a source must choose and encode a message. The message must be transmitted
via a medium, which could be television, radio, magazines, billboards, or even a t-shirt.
The message is then decoded by one or more receiver
Finally feedback must be received by the source, who uses the reactions of receiver to modify
aspects of the message
AN UPDATED VIEW: INTERATIVE COMMUNICATIONS
New communication model: permission marketing is based on the idea that marketer will be much more
successful trying to persuade consumers who have opted into their messages. Those who say they are
interested in learning more are likely to be receptive to marketing communications they have already
chosen to see or hear.
Uses and gratifications theory argue instead that consumers are an active, goal-directed audience that
draws on mass media as a resource to satisfy needs. So instead of asking what media do for people, they
ask what people do with their media.
Gratification approach emphasizes that media compete with other souse to satisfy needs and that these
needs include diversion and entertainment as well as information. Companies are being forced to
design more attractive retail outlets, catalogues, and websites to induce consumers to stop at them.
M-commerce (mobile communication) where marketers promote their goods and services via wireless
devices including cell phone, etc.
There are two types of feedback:
1) First-ordered response: direct-marketing vehicles such as catalogues and tv infomercials are
interactive. MKT400 Attitude change and interaction communications Chapter 8
2) Second-order response: marketing communication does not have to immediately result in a
purchases to be an important component of interactive marketing. Messages can prompt useful
responses from customers, even though these recipients do not necessarily place an order
immediately after being exposed to the communication.
Attributing the same message to different sources and measuring the degree of attitude change that
occurs after listeners hear it, researchers have found that it is possible to determine what aspects of a
communicator will induce attitude change.
Source can be chosen because he or she is an expert, attractive, famous or even a typical consumer who
is both likeable and trustworthy. Two important source of characteristics are credibility and
There should be match between the needs of the recipient and the potential rewards offered by the
source. People who tend to be sensitive about social acceptance and the opinions of others, for
example, are more persuaded by an attractive source, whereas those who are more internally oriented
are swayed by credible, expert source.
Source credibility refers to the sources perceived expertise, objectivity or trustworthiness. This
characteristic relates to consumers beliefs that a communicator is competent and willing to provide the
necessary information adequately to evaluate competing products.
Sleeper effect: sometimes a source can be obnoxious or disliked and still manage to be effective at
getting the products message across. After a while, people appear to forget about negative and wind up
changing their attitudes away. This process is known as the sleeper effect. Sleeper effect has been
obtained only when the message was encoded deeply, that is it had stronger association in memory
than did the source.
Building credibility: credibility can be enhanced if the sources qualifications are perceived as relevant to
the product being endorsed.
Source biases: Consumer’s beliefs about a products attributes can be weakened if the source is
perceived to be the victim of bias in presenting information. Reporting bias occurs when a source has
the required knowledge but his or her willingness to convey it accurately is compromised, it is not
always clear that a person has been paid to say he or she loves a product.
Hype vs Buzz: The corporate paradox
Corporate paradox- the more involved a company appears to be in the dissemination of news about tis
product, the less credible it becomes. Buzz is word