Chapter 2- Perception
Perception is the by which sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted.
Are largely affected by a consumer's cultural background
Aspects of perception:
o Sensation: the immediate responses of our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth,
and fingers) to stimuli as light, colour, and sound
o Attention: the allocation of (limited) processing capacity to incoming stimuli
Interpretation: the meaning that consumers attribute to a sensation
Understanding consumer perceptual abilities is critical for many areas of marketing:
o Positioning, media strategy, retailing, pricing
External stimuli, or sensory inputs, can be received on a number of channels.
o Multisensory, fantasy, and emotional aspects of consumers' interactions with products.
o Ex: Harley Davidson's hog sound of its revving motor.
o Marketing originally meant appealing to customers in terms of efficiency rather than
aesthetics. Now the focus is on packaging and display.
o Meanings are communicated through visual channel through a product's size, styling,
brightness, and distinctiveness from competitors' products
o Colours may even influence our emotions more directly
Yellow: optimistic, used to grab attention of window shopper
Red: energy; increase heart rate, often seen in clearance sales.
Blue: sensation of trust and security; often seen with banks and businesses
Green: associated with wealth; easiest colour for eyes to process; used to relax in
o Age also influences response to colour
As you get older vision takes a yellow cast
Old people like white and other bright tones
o The colours we see are affected by our culture and the language we have learned to
For example, the Welsh language has no word that correspond with green, blue,
grey or brown in English
o Colours also plays dominant role in webpage design
It directs viewers eye across the page, ties together ideas, captures attention etc
o Trade Dress: some colours combinations come to be associated so strongly with a
corporation that they become known as trade dress.
o Fragrance is processed by the limbic system, the most primitive part of the brain and
the place where immediate emotions are experienced.
o Most people attach meaning to sound – music as a source of inspiration
o Haptic (touch) appear to moderate the relationship between product experience and
judgement confidence. We're more sure about what we perceive when we can touch it.
Kansei engineering: a philosophy that translates customers feelings into design
Exposure is the degree to which people notice a stimulus that is within range of their sensory