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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Notes

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Ryerson University
MKT 400
Ida Berger

thTuesday March 6 2012 Chapter 4 Motivation and ValuesThe Motivation Process motivation refers to the process that causes people to behave as they do it occurs when a need is aroused that the consumer whishes to satisfy once a need has been activated a state of tension exists that drives the consumer to attempt to reduce or eliminate the need it may be utilitarian desire to achieve some functional or practical benefits when a person requires a pair of durable sneakers OR it may be hedonic an experiential need involving emotional responses or fantasies as when someone buys special running shoes for a triathlondesired end state is the consumers goal marketers try to create products and services that will provide the desired benefit and permit the consumer to reduce this tension discrepancy exists between the consumers present state and some ideal state this gulf creates a state of tension magnitude of this tension determines the urgency the consumer feels to reduce the tension degree of arousal is called drive personal and cultural factors combine to create a want which is one manifestation of a needExample hunger is a basic need that must be satisfied by all lack of food creates a tension state that can be reduced by the intake of such products as cheeseburgers cookies fish etc once goal is attained tension is reduced and the motivation recedesMotivational Strength degree to which a person is willing to expand energy to reach one goal as opposed to another reflects his or her underlying motivation to attain that goal many theories have been advanced to explain why people behave the way they do 2 main theories to consider 1 Drive TheoryFocuses on biological needs that produce unpleasant of arousal such as your stomach grumbling during a morning classWe are motivated to reduce tension caused by this arousal tension reduction has been proposed as a basic mechanism governing human behaviourAccording to marketing tension refers to the unpleasant state that exists if a persons consumption needs are not fulfilled EX many people may be grumpy if they havent eaten or angry if they cannot afford a new car This state activates good oriented behaviour that attempts to reduce or eliminate this unpleasant state and return to a balanced one which is called homeostasisYourmotivation to leave class early to grab a snack would be greater if you hadnt eaten in 24 hours than if you did just 2 hours agoPersons degree of motivation depends on the distance between hisher present state and goalThis theory also runs into difficulties people often do things that increase a drive state rather than decrease itEX if you know you are going out for dinner you might describe to grab a snack earlier in the day even though you are hungry at that time
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