Chapter 4 Notes

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17 Apr 2012
Tuesday March 6th, 2012
Chapter 4
Motivation and Values
The Motivation Process:
-motivation refers to the process that causes people to behave as they do, it occurs when a need is
aroused that the consumer whishes to satisfy, once a need has been activated a state of tension exists
that drives the consumer to attempt to reduce or eliminate the need
-it may be utilitarian (desire to achieve some functional or practical benefits (when a person requires a
pair of durable sneakers) OR it may be hedonic (an experiential need involving emotional responses or
fantasies as when someone buys special running shoes for a triathlon)
-desired end state is the consumer’s goal
-marketers try to create products and services that will provide the desired benefit and permit the
consumer to reduce this tension
-discrepancy exists between the consumer’s present state and some ideal state, this gulf creates a state
of tension, magnitude of this tension determines the urgency the consumer feels to reduce the tension
-degree of arousal is called “drive”
-personal and cultural factors combine to create a want, which is one manifestation of a need
Example: hunger is a basic need that must be satisfied by all; lack of food creates a tension state
that can be reduced by the intake of such products as cheeseburgers, cookies, fish etc
-once goal is attained, tension is reduced and the motivation recedes
Motivational Strength:
-degree to which a person is willing to expand energy to reach one goal as opposed to another reflects
his or her underlying motivation to attain that goal
-many theories have been advanced to explain why people behave the way they do
-2 main theories to consider:
1. Drive Theory:
Focuses on biological needs that produce unpleasant of arousal (such as your stomach
grumbling during a morning class)
We are motivated to reduce tension caused by this arousal, tension reduction has been
proposed as a basic mechanism governing human behaviour
According to marketing, tension refers to the unpleasant state that exists if a person’s
consumption needs are not fulfilled
EX: many people may be grumpy if they haven’t eaten or angry if they cannot
afford a new car
This state activates good oriented behaviour that attempts to reduce or eliminate this
unpleasant state and return to a balanced one which is called “homeostasis
Your motivation to leave class early to grab a snack would be greater if you hadn’t
eaten in 24 hours than if you did just 2 hours ago
Person’s degree of motivation depends on the distance between his/her present state
and goal
This theory also runs into difficulties; people often do things that increase a drive state
rather than decrease it
EX: if you know you are going out for dinner, you might describe to grab a snack
earlier in the day even though you are hungry at that time
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Tuesday March 6th, 2012
2. Expectancy Theory:
Current explanation of motivation focuses on cognitive factors rather than biological
ones to understand what drives behaviour
This theory suggests that behaviour is largely pulled by expectation of achieving
desirable outcomes positive incentives rather than pushed from within
We choose one product over another because we expect this choice to have more
positive consequences for us therefore the term “drive” is used here more loosely to
refer to both physical and cognitive processes
Motivational Direction:
-motives have direction as well as strength, they are goal oriented in that specific objectives are desired
to satisfy a need
-most goals can be reached by a number of routes and the objective of marketers is to convince
consumers that the alternative they offer provides the best chance to attain the goal
Needs and Wants:
-the way need is satisfied depends on the person’s unique history and learning experiences and his/her
cultural environment
-particular form of consumption used to satisfy a need is termed a “want
EX: 2 classmates may feel that their stomach is rumbling during lunch time lecture, if both of
them have not eaten since the night before the strength of their respective needs (hunger)
would be about the same
-however, everyone’s way to satisfy their needs are different, one person might be health caution so
he/she would eat fruits while the other might consider eating chips/cheeseburger/fries
Types of Needs:
-people are born with a need for certain elements necessary to maintain life, such as food, water, air,
shelter etc
These needs are called biogenic needs
-psychogenic needs are acquired in the process of becoming a member of a culture, these needs include
the need for status, power, affiliation etc
Psychogenic tends to refer to priorities of a culture, effects will vary in different environments
-consumers can also be motivated to satisfy either utilitarian or hedonic needs
Satisfaction of utilitarian needs implies that consumers will emphasize the objective, tangible
attributes of products such as km per liter of gas in a car
Hedonic needs are subjective and experiential, leading consumers to reply on a product
because it meets their needs for excitement, self confidence or fantasy perhaps to escape the
mundane or routine aspects of life
-consumers may be motivated to purchase a product because it provides both types of benefits
EX: Canada goose jackets may be bought because of the luxurious image it portrays and because
it keeps the wearer warm throughout the long cold winter
Motivational Conflicts:
-goal has valence, which means that is can be positive or negative
-positively valued goal is one towards which consumers direct their behavior; they are motivated to
approach the goal and will seek out products that will be instrumental in attaining it
-not all behaviour is motivated by the desire to approach a goal
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