Chapter 7 Notes

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18 Apr 2012
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Tuesday March 13th, 2012
Chapter 7
Attitudes
The Power of Attitudes:
-term attitude is widely used in popular culture
Ex: you might be asked “what is your attitude towards abortion?
Ex: your parents might say “young man I don’t like your attitude
-for marketing purposes, attitude is a lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects
such as a brand of vodka or intangible such as drunk drivers is called an attitude object
-attitude is lasting because it tends to endure over time, develop a negative attitude like hearing a loud
noise
-consumers have attitudes towards very product specific behaviours (such as using Crest toothpaste
rather than Colgate) as well as toward more general consumption related behaviours (such as how a
person might brush their teeth)
-attitudes help to determine whom a person chooses to date, what music he/she listens too, whether
he/she will recycle or discard aluminum cans and whether he/she chooses to become a consumer
researcher for a living
The Functions of Attitudes:
-functional theory of attitudes was initially developed by psychologist Daniel Katz to explain how
attitudes facilitate social behaviour
-according to pragmatic approach, attitudes exist because they serve some function for the person; that
is they are determined by a person’s motives
-consumers who expect that they will need to deal with similar information at a future time will be more
likely to start forming attitudes in anticipation of this event
-2 people can each have the same attitudes towards some object for very different reasons, therefore
helpful for a marketer to know why an attitude is held before attempting to change it
-following are attitudes functions identified by Katz:
Utilitarian Function: is related to the basic principles of reward and punishment, we develop
some of our attitudes towards products simply on the basis of whether these products provide
pleasure or pain
If a person likes the taste of a cheeseburger, that person will develop a positive attitude
towards cheeseburger
Value Expressive Function: attitudes that perform a value expressive function express the
consumer’s central values or self concept, person forms a product attitude not because its
objective benefits, but because of what the product says about him/her as a person
Ego Defensive Function: attitudes that are formed to protect the person, either from external
threats or internal feelings perform an ego defensive function
Knowledge Function: some attitudes are formed as the result of a need for order, structure or
meaning, this need is often present when a person is in an ambiguous situation or is confronted
with a new product
-an attitude can serve more than one functions but in many cases a particular one will be dominant, by
identifying the dominant function a product serves for consumers, marketers can emphasize these
benefits in their communications and packaging
-ads relevant to the function prompt more favourable thoughts about what is being marketed and can
result in a heightened preference for both the ad and the product
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