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Chapter 6

MKT 400 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Karen Horney, Carl Jung, Brand Equity

Course Code
MKT 400
Marla Spergel

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MKT400 Chapter 6: Personality and Lifestyles
Refers to a person’s unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences the
way he or she responds to the environment
Consumer behaviour on the couch: Freudian Theory
Sigmund Freud developed the idea that much of human behaviour stems from a
fundamental conflict between a person’s desire to gratify his or her physical needs and the
necessity to function as a responsible member of society
Freudian systems:
o Id oriented towards immediate gratification; “party animal” of the mind; operates
according to pleasure principle; selfish and illogical
o Superego counterweight of the id; internalizes society’s rules and prevents the id
from selfish gratification
o Ego system that mediates between the id and superego
His work highlights the potential importance of unconscious motives underlying purchases
The person channels his or her unacceptable desires into acceptable outlets by using
products that signify these underlying desires
Most Freudian applications in marketing are related to the sexuality of products
Motivational research
Approach is largely based on psychoanalytical (Freudian) interpretations, with a heavy
emphasis on unconscious motives
A basic assumption if that socially unacceptable needs are channelled into acceptable
Ask few people many in depth questions rather than lots of people a few general questions
Technique was pioneered by Ernest Ditcher
Attacked for 2 reasons: some feel it doesn’t work (interpretations are subjective and
indirect, and based on a small number of people), and works too well (marketers are
blamed for manipulation their customers)
Great appeal to some marketers:
o Cost efficiency less expensive than large scale, quantitative surveys
o Providing insights
o Intuitive sense
Neo-Freudian theories following from or being influenced by Freud:
o Karen Horney proposed that people can be described as moving toward others
(compliant), away from others (detached), or against others (aggressive)
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