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Chapter 6

Wk. 2 - Ch. 6 notes.docx

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MKT 400
Marla Spergel

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MKT400 – Chapter 6: Personality and Lifestyles Personality  Refers to a person’s unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences the way he or she responds to the environment Consumer behaviour on the couch: Freudian Theory  Sigmund Freud developed the idea that much of human behaviour stems from a fundamental conflict between a person’s desire to gratify his or her physical needs and the necessity to function as a responsible member of society  Freudian systems: o Id – oriented towards immediate gratification; “party animal” of the mind; operates according to pleasure principle; selfish and illogical o Superego – counterweight of the id; internalizes society’s rules and prevents the id from selfish gratification o Ego – system that mediates between the id and superego  His work highlights the potential importance of unconscious motives underlying purchases  The person channels his or her unacceptable desires into acceptable outlets by using products that signify these underlying desires  Most Freudian applications in marketing are related to the sexuality of products Motivational research  Approach is largely based on psychoanalytical (Freudian) interpretations, with a heavy emphasis on unconscious motives  A basic assumption if that socially unacceptable needs are channelled into acceptable outlets  Ask few people many in depth questions rather than lots of people a few general questions  Technique was pioneered by Ernest Ditcher  Attacked for 2 reasons: some feel it doesn’t work (interpretations are subjective and indirect, and based on a small number of people), and works too well (marketers are blamed for manipulation their customers)  Great appeal to some marketers: o Cost efficiency – less expensive than large scale, quantitative surveys o Providing insights o Intuitive sense  Neo-Freudian theories – following from or being influenced by Freud: o Karen Horney – proposed that people can be described as moving toward others (compliant), away from others (detached), or against others (aggressive) o Carl Jung - unable to accept Freud’s emphasis on sexual aspects of personality; analytical psychology; believed that people are shaped by the cumulative experiences of past generations Trait theory  One approach to personality is to focus on the quantitative measurement of traits (identifiable characteristics that define a person  The trait dimension most relevant to consumer behaviour is the extent to which a person is motivated to consume in order to please others/fit in vs. expressing their unique self  Recent research examines the consumption differences between idiocentrics (having an individual orientation) and allocentrics (having a group orientation) o Contentment – idocentrics scored higher o Health consciousness – allocentrics scored higher o Food preparation – allocentrics spend more time preparing food o Workaholics – idocentrics say they work hard most of the time o Travel and entertainment – idiocentrics are more interested in other cultures  Problems with trait theory in consumer research – page 178 Brand personality  Brand personality – set of traits people attribute to a product as if it were a person  Brand equity – extent to which customers hold strong, favourable, and unique associations with a brand in memory – and the extent to which they are willing t
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