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MKT 510 (65)
Ida Berger (52)
Chapter 4

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MKT 510
Ida Berger

Chapter 4 —Choosing Brand Elements to Build Brand Equity  Brand elements: (brand identities) trademarkable devices that serve to identify & differentiate the brand o Brand names o Characters o Packages o URLs o Spokespeople o Signage o Logos o Slogans o Symbols o Jingles  CBBE suggests that marketers should choose brand elements to enhance brand awareness; facilitate the formation of strong, favourable, & unique brand associations; or elicit positive brand judgements & feelings Criteria for choosing brand elements 6 criteria for brand elements Offensive 1. Memorablility -memorable & attention-getting, & therefore facilitate recall or recognition. -ex, a brand of propane gas cylinders named Blue Rhino featuring a powder- blue animal mascot with a distinctive yellow flame is likely to stick in the minds of consumers. 2. Meaningfulness - may take on all kinds of meaning, with either descriptive or persuasive content. -Two particularly important criteria - General info about the nature of the product category -Specific info about particular attributes & benefits of the brand -The first dimension is an important determinant of brand awareness & salience; the second, of brand image & positioning. 3. Likability -fun & interesting -rich visual & verbal imagery -aesthetically pleasing -Descriptive & persuasive elements reduce the burden on marketing communications to build awareness. defensive 4. Transferability -within & across product categories (line/category extensions) -across geo boundaries & cultures 5. Adaptability -The more adaptable & flexible the brand element, the easier it is to update it to changes in consumer values & opinions. -ex, logos & characters can be given a new look or a new design to make them appear more modern & relevant. 6. Protectability - Choose brand elements that can be legally protected internationally. 1) Formally register chosen brand elements with the appropriate legal bodies. 2) Vigorously defend trademarks from unauthorized competitive infringement. Options & tactics for brand elements Brand names  Most central of all brand elements  Ideally a brand name would be easily remembered, highly suggesting of both product class & the particular benefits that served as the basis of its positioning, inherently fun or interesting, rich with creative potential, transferable to a wide variety of products & geographic settings, enduring in meaning & relevant over time, & strongly protectable both legally & competitively  Fundamentally important because it often captures the central theme of key associations of a product in a very compact & economical fashion  Shorthand means of communications  Most difficult element for marketers to change Naming guidelines  Different types of possible brand names according to identity experts o Descriptivedescribes function literally o Suggestivesuggestive of a benefit or function o Compoundscombination of 2+ unexpected words o Classicalbased on Latin, Greek, Sanskrit o Arbitraryreal words with no obvious tie in to the company o Fancifulcoined words with no obvious meaning  Brand awareness o Brand names that are simple & easy to pronounce or spell, familiar & meaningful, & different, distinctive, & unusual can obviously improve brand awareness o Simple & easy to pronounce  Short names often facilitate recall because they are easy to encode & store in memory  Bic pens, or shortening: ChevroletChevy  Easily pronouncing names encourage WOM exposure o Should have a clear, understandable, & unambiguous pronunciation & meaning o Seek a desirable cadence & pleasant sound in names  Cap’n crunch o Familiarity & meaningfulness  Tap into existing knowledge structures  To help create strong brand category, brand names can suggest the product category (juicyjuice) o Differentiated, distinctive, unique  Brand associations o Can reinforce an important attribute or benefit association that makes up its product positioning  Colorstay lipstick, lean cuisine, mop & glo floor wax o Descriptive brand name should make it easier to link the reinforced attribute or benefit  Consumers will find it easier to believe the detergent adds fresh scent if it’s called blossom Naming procedures  Top 10 naming mistakes 1. Treating naming as an afterthought 2. Ignoring complex trademark & url issues 3. Keeping a brand name that is no longer relevant 4. Ignoring that naming is not only creative, but strategic 5. Falling into the subjectivity trap 6. Overlooking the global implications of names 7. Failing to effectively communicate the name internally 8. Ending verbal communication of a brand with its name 9. Naming when it’s not very necessary 10. Believing that naming is an easy process  Naming procedure 1. Define objective 2. Generate names 3. Screen initial candidates 5. Research the final candidates 4. Study candidate names 6. Select the final name URLs  URLs (uniform resource locators) specify locations of pages on the web (domain names)  Volume of registered URLs makes it difficult for company to find a domain name that hasn’t been used  Issuesprotecting their brands from unauthorized use in other domain names o A company can either sue the current owner, buy the name from the current owner, or register all conceivable variations of its brand as domain names ahead of time Logos & symbols  Visual elements typically play a critical role in building brand equity & brand awareness  Logos: means to indicate origin, ownership, or associations (symbolsnonword) o Range from names/trademarks (word mark) or extremely abstract designs(nonword mark) o Wordmarkkitkat, cocacola o Nonwordmarknike, Olympics  Fall into two extremes o Literal representations of the brand name, enhancing brand meaning & awareness  Arm & hammer o Quite concrete or pictorial in nature  Ralph Lauran polo player o Certain physical elements can become a symbol  Goodyear blimp & McDonalds golden arches  Benefits
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