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Chapter 9

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MKT 510
Ida Berger

Chapter 9— Measuring Sources of Brand Equity Comparing qualitative & quantitative Research Aspect Qualitative Research Quantitative research Common purpose Discover ideas with general research objectivTest hypothesis/specific research objectives Approach Observe & interpret Measure & test Data collection approach Unstructured & free form Structured response categories provided Research independence Research is intimately involved, subjective Research uninvolved, objective Samples Small, often in natural setting Large, to be generalizable results Qualitative Research Techniques  Qualitative research techniques: identify possible brand associations & sources of brand equity o Relatively unstructured measurement approaches o Permit a rand of possible consumer responses Free association  Free association: simplest & often the most powerful way to profile brand associations o Subjects are asked what comes to mind when they think of the brand  Ex. What does the Rolex name mean to you?  Useful in constructing a rough mental map  Identify the range of possibilities brand associations in consumers mind, but free association may also provide some rough indication of relative strength, favourability, uniqueness of brand associations  Useful question to follow up include o What do you like best about the brand? What are its positive aspects? o What do you dislike? What are its disadvantages? o What do you find unique about the brand? How is it different from other brands? In what ways is it the same? o Who, what, where, when, why type questions  Archetype: a fundamental psychological association, shared by the members of culture, with a given cultural object  2 main issues to consider o What types of probes to give to subjects o How to code & interpret the resulting data Projective techniques  Projective techniques: Diagnostic tools to uncover the true opinions & feelings of consumers when they are unwilling or otherwise unable to express themselves on these matters o Marketers present consumers with an incomplete stimulus & ask them to complete it, o Give consumers ambiguous stimulus & ask them to make sense of it  Consumers might feel that it would be socially unacceptable to express their true feelings  Projective techniques are diagnostic tools to uncover the true opinions & feelings of consumers  Rorschach Test: experimenters present ink blots to subjects & ask them what the ink blots remind them of Examples:  Completion & interpretation tasksclass projective techniques use incomplete/ambiguous stimulus to elicit consumer thought & feelings o Bubble test—give a cartoon with empty bubbles & ask them to fill the bubbles in  Comparison tasksask consumers to convey their impressions by comparing brands to people, countries, animals etc. o If dannon yogurt were a care which one would it be? ZMET (Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique)  ZMET: “a technique for eliciting interconnected constructs that influence thought & behavior.”  Based on the belief that consumers often have subconscious motives for their purchasing behavior  ZMET is useful in understanding consumers images of o Brands o Companies o Products o Brand equity o concepts & design o Consumption context o usage/purchase experience o Attitudes toward business o Life experiences  The guided conversation consists of a series of steps that includes some or all of the following: o Story telling—describe the content of each pic o Missed images—describe the pic that they were unable to obtain & explain relevance o Sorting task—sort pics into meaningful groups & label o Construct elicitation—reveal basic constructs & interconnections using images o The most representative pic—indicate which pic is most representative o Opposite images—describe the opposite of the brand or task they were given o Sensory images—what does describe the concept in terms of color, emotion, sound, smell, taste & touch o Mental map—whether the constructs are accurate or is anything missing o Summary image—create a summary image or montage using own image to express important issues o Vignette—put together a short video to help communicate important issues Brand personality & values  Brand personality refers to the human characteristics or traits that can be attributed to a brand.  The Big Five o Sincerity (down-to-earth, wholesome, & cheerful) o Excitement (daring, spirited, imaginative, & up-to-date) o Competence (reliable, intelligent, & successful) o Sophistication (upper class & charming) o Ruggedness (outdoorsy & tough) Experimental methods  By tapping more directly into their actual home, work, or shopping behaviors, researchers might be able to elicit more meaningful responses from consumers.  Advocates of the experiential approach have sent researchers to consumers’ homes in the morning to see how they approach their days, given business travelers Polaroid cameras & diaries to capture their feelings when in hotel rooms, & conducted “beeper studies” in which participants are instructed to write down what they’re doing when they are paged.  Best practises for outbound or inbound consumer visits o Leverage the visits you already make by coordinating them via perennial questions & logging & reviewing customer profiles o Take every opportunity to ask questions o Get engineers in front of consumers, not just marketers o Conduct programmatic visits o Visit different kinds of customers o Get out of the conference room Quantitative research techniques  Quantitative research: employs various types of scale questions from which researchers can draw numerical representations & summaries o can help to better assess the depth & breadth of brand awareness o the strength, favourability, & uniqueness of brand associations o the valence of brand judgements & feelings o the extent & nature of brand relationships  often the primary ingredient in tracking studies that monitor brand knowledge structures of consumer over time Brand awareness  Brand awareness: describes the likelihood that a brand will come to mind in different situations & the ease with which it does so given different types of cues  Recognition: Ability of consumers to identify the brand (and its elements) under various circumstances o Especially important for packaging & some marketing researchers have used creative means to assess the visibility of package design  Recall: Ability of consumers to retrieve the actual brand elements from memory o Unaided recall: cue is likely to identify only the very strongest brands o aided recall: various cues to help customers recall  they yield insight into how brand knowledge is organized in memory & what kind of cue
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