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Module 2: Oxygen & Oxygen Therapy

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Ryerson University

MOD 2 Oxygen and Oxygen Therapy September18101056 PMExplain the structure and function of the upper and lower respiratory tracts and the chest wallUpper Respiratory TractNoseMade of bone and cartilage Two nares divided by nasal septum The internal nose is shaped into rolling projections calledturbinates that increases the surface area for warming and moistening airInternal nose opens directly into sinusesLined with mucous membrane and small hairs Air is warmed to near body temperature humidified and filtered Olfactory nerve endingssense smell is located at the roof PharynxA tubular passageway that is subdivided into nasopharynx oropharynx laryngopharynxEpiglottis Small flap of tissue at the base of the tongue During swallowing prevents liquids and solid from entering the lungs via larynx LarynxWhere the vocal chords are locatedTracheaCylindrical tubeBifurcates into the right and left main stem bronchi at a point called the carinaLocated at the level of the manubriosternal junction angle of louisHighly sensitiveLower Respiratory TractOnce the air passes the carina it is in the lower respiratory tractThe right mainstem bronchus is shorter wider and straighter than the left main stem bronchusAspiration is more likely in the right lung The main stem bronchi the pulmonary vessels and nerves enter the lungs through a slit called the hilusMain stem bronchi subdivide several times to form the lobar segmental and subsegmental bronchi Further division form the bronchiolesSurrounded by smooth muscles that constrict bronchoconstriction and dilate bronchodilation in response to various stimuli Respiratory bronchioles the most distant bronchioles Beyond the respiratory bronchioles are thealveolar ducts and sacsAlveoliSmall sacs that form the functional unit of the lungsInterconnected by pores of Kohn which allow movement of air from alveolus to alveolus Chest wallShaped supported and protected by 24 ribs 12 each sideThe ribs and the sternum protect the lungs and the heart from injury thoracic cageThe pleuraParietal pleura chest cavityHas pain fibresVisceral pleura lungs Joined by double walled sacInterpleuralspace the space between the pleural layers Thin flim of fluids provide lubrication allowing layers of pleura to slide over eachNSE22 Page 1
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