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Winter Week 1 - Review Quantitative Content/Levels of Measurement

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Winter Week 1 Review Quantitative ContentLevels of MeasurementJanuary0411820 PMProblems ReviewA research problem is a perplexing or troubling condition The purpose of the research is to solve the problem or to contribute to its solution by accumulating relevant informationA problem statement articulates the problem to be addressed It is something that requires investigationExample The side effects of chemotherapyVariables and relationships are terms used by quantitative researchersThe type of problem selected for study gives direction for the method qualitative or quantitativeExample if you want to know if a new product speeds wound healing you will conduct a quantitative research studyHypotheses ReviewResearch hypothesis a tentative prediction about the relationship between two or more variables in the population under study They are statements of actual expected relationships between variables Example Children who eat breakfast will obtain higher grades in mathematics than those who dontFindings from quantitative studies lead to a hypothesisUsed in some types of quantitative researchShould be based on sound rationaleHow do Hypotheses HelpFoster critical thinkingFacilitates interpretation of dataMinimizes acceptance of accidental findingsStates expected relationship between independent variable and dependent variableTypes of HypothesesSimplepredicts relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variableExample Selfreported job satisfaction predicts intentions expressed about working as a UK NurseComplex predicts relationship between two or more independent andor two dependentExample Selfreported job satisfactionat earlier timepoints 6 months 18 months predicts working as a UK nurse at 18 months and 3 years after qualificationsHypotheses can be directional or nondirectionalA directional hypothesis is one that specifies not only the existence but also the expected direction of the relationship between variablesExample The incidence and degree of severity of subject discomfort will be lessafter a 30 second injection of Heparin compared to a 15 second injectionA nondirectional hypothesisdoes not stipulate the direction of the relationshipExample There will be a differencein fatigue between two groups of caregivers of preterm infants at one month postdischarge Note researchers did not say if caregivers would be more or less tired just that there would be a differenceNull hypotheses state that there is no relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variablesFor statistical analysis the logic of statistical inference requires that hypotheses be expressed as though no relationship were expected The basis of statistical analysis Researchers analyze data from this philosophical perspective then see what the data revealsExample mothers exercise levels postpartum are unrelated to their weight retentionThe variables are assumed to be innocent of any relationship until they can be shown to be guilty through statistical proceduresHypotheses are never proved or disproved through hypothesis testing rather they are accepted or rejected Research Page 1
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