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FNN11 Week 1 The Basics of Nutrition

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Nutrition and Food
FNN 111
Josh Tarini

Chapter 1: The Basics of Nutrition What influences your eating practices? • Family/Peers • Childhood Experiences • Ethnic background/Religious beliefs • Education • Occupation/Income • Urban/Rural residence • Food composition, convenience and availability • Food flavor, texture, and appearance • Nutritional Beliefs/Health beliefs • Current health status • Advertising/media • Mood Why Should You Care About Your Diet? • Poor eating habits are associated with 8/10 leading causes of death o Heart disease o Pulmonary Disease o Some cancers – lung, colon, and breast o Stroke o Type 2 Diabetes • Adequate diet + exercise may reduce your chances of developing these chronic diseases How to Lower Your Risk • Increase fruit/vegetable consumption • Do physical activity regularly • Lower intake of saturated and trans fats • Limit alcohol intake • Avoid exposure to tobacco • Increase consumption of whole grains What is Nutrition? Nutrition: Study of the composition of nutrients, chemicals that are in food that are necessary for life, and how the body uses them. Encompasses the study of chemistry, biology, anthropology, and psych. Diet: typical pattern of food choices Nutrients • Life sustaining substances in food o Carbs o Lipids (fats) o Proteins o Vitamins o Minerals o Water (most essential nutrient) • Essential Nutrient: must be supplied by food because the body cant synthesize the nutrient or make enough to meet its needs Types of Nutrients Macronutrients Micronutrients Nutrients needed to provide daily energy Nutrients needed that don’t provide energy Required in large amounts (grams) Required in small amounts (milligrams/micrograms) Carbohydrates Vitamins Lipids Minerals Proteins Protein • 4kcal per gram of protein • Provides energy • Meat, dairy, eggs, soy, tofu • Recommended intake 10 -35% total calories • Needed for production of structural components such as cell membranes, enzymes, etc. • Aids in cellular development, growth, and maintenance • Regulation of body processes Metrics for Nutrition - 1 inch = 2.54 cm - 1 ounce = 28 g - 1 lb = 454 g - 1 kg 2.2 lbs What is a Calorie? • Heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1000g (1L) of water 1 degree C • Describes energy content of food • Reported in 1000 calorie units: kilocalorie (kcal) 1kcal = 1000 calories= 1 Calorie Vitamins • Two Types: Water soluble (B vitamins, vitamin C) and Fat Soluble (A,D,E,K) • Doesn’t provide energy • Regulates body processes • Cell metabolism • Maintenance of immune function • Production and maintenance of tissues • Protection against agents that can damage cellular components Minerals • Do not provide energy • Regulation of body processes • Formation of certain chemical messengers • Structural and functional components of various substances and tissues • Necessary for physical growth, maintenance, and development • Major minerals: needed in large amounts (sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sulfate) Water • Most essential nutrient • Maintenance of fluid balance • Regulation of body temperature • Elimination of wastes • Transportation of substances • Participate in many chemical reactions Nonnutrients • Substances contained in some foods that are not essential nutrients, but have health benefits o Phytochemicals: made by plants (ex. Antioxidants) which reduce risk of heart disease/cancer o Antioxidants: protein other compounds from being damaged/destroyed by certain environmental factors o Fibre: group of substances made by plants that humans don’t digest, but provide some health bene
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