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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Managing Quality.doc

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Nutrition and Food
FNS 200
Donna Barnes

Chapter 2 Managing Quality -Quality is defined by the customer through his/her satisfaction. Quality of foodservice ops needs to be improved on a continual basis. Quality in the Foodservice system -The American Society for Quality (ASQ) defines quality as “the characteristics of a product/service that bears on its ability to satisfy stated/implied needs & a product/service that is free of defects”. ASQ suggest quality is not a program but an approach to business, quality is defined by customer satisfaction, its aimed at performance excellence & inc customer satisfaction, reduces cycle times & costs & eliminates errors & rework. (fig 2.1) -Approaches to Quality: A US General Accounting Office study (1994) reported that companies using total quality management (TQM) practices had higher profitability, greater customer satisfaction, better employee relations, & inc market share vs. companies that didn’t. TQM starts off w/ organizational goals & objectives; quality customer service is the goal of both profit & non-profit orgs. Dr. Edwards Deming, the said father of TQM, proposed a 14-pt system to help companies inc their quality: 1. Create a consistency of purpose toward 9. Break down barriers among improvement of products & services departments 2. Adopt a new philosophy of quality 10. Eliminate slogans & targets for the 3. Cease dependence on inspection to workplace achieve quality 11. Eliminate numeric quotas for the 4. End the practice of choosing suppliers workforce based solely on price 12. Remove barriers that rob employees 5. Improve constantly & forever the of pride/workmanship & eliminate annual production & service systems rating/merit systems 6. Institute extensive training OTJ 13. Institute a vigorous program of edu & 7. Shift focus from production #s to quality self-improvement for everyone 8. Drive out fear 14. Make sure everyone in the company is put to work to achieve the other 13pts *The ff are terms used to describe management approaches to improving performance: I. Quality Assurance (QA)=a procedure that defines & ensures maintenance of standards w/in prescribed tolerances for a product/service. Output oriented & incl the process of defining measurable quality standards & putting controls in place to ensure they are met. A reactive process & is predicated on follow-up & inspection & finding error after the fact. II. Total quality management (TQM)=a management philosophy directed at improving customer satisfaction while promoting pos change & effective cultural environment for continuous improvement of all org aspects; Zabel & Avery (1992) suggest that TQM has 6 components (fig 2.2). Robbins & Coulter’s defn of TQM incl: intense focus on customer, concern for continual improvement, focus on process, improvement in quality of everything the company does, accurate measurement & empowerment of employees. =A customer is anyone affected by a product/service—external customers are affected by the product but don’t belong the org that produces it, eg. buying a burger from resto vs. internal customers are both affected by the product & belong to the org that produces it, eg. employees & suppliers. Employee empowerment which is the level/degree to which managers allow their employees to act independently w/in their job descriptions, is important to TQM & the improvement of org overall performance. Everyone in the org req training, retaining & the opportunity to acquire/develop skills necessary to do their jobs better. =TQM usually involves teams of employees (assigned projects aimed at improving product/service quality while reducing costs), a leader & a facilitator (assist teams eg. supervisors, specialists & helps trainees learn to be team members) for accomplishing change. TQM usually involves identifying the problem, determining causes, developing measurable improvement, selecting/implementing the best soln, collecting data to statistically measure results, refining the soln & then repeating the cycle. Requires long-term commitment from org & more complete understanding of it op. Eg. Taco Bell—FACT (Fast service & Accurate orders w/ food served in a Clean restaurant & at the right Temperature), John Engstrom—Triad of Excellence III. Continuous quality improvement (CQI)=a focused management philosophy for providing leadership, structure, training & an environment in which to improve continuously all org processes. Process is continuous & focused on continually improving the quality of ops & customer/patient experience; the basic premise is to find ways to improve the process vs. blaming ppl. IV. Six Sigma=a disciplined, data driven approach for improving quality by removing defects & their causes; introduced by Bill Smith, an engineer at Motorola Corp. Achieving Six Sigma means that process can’t produce more than 3.4 defects/million opportunities; six sigma is 6 SD from the mean meaning very little variation occurs in the process. Designed using D (define project goals) M (measure current performance of the process) A (analyze & determine causes of defects) I (improve the process by eliminating defects) C (control & standardize future process performance) approach. Company managers believe this helps them better understand customer needs, produce more reliable products & services, make quicker decisions about data & reduce op costs. V. Kaizen=a Japanese philosophy emphasizing incremental & continuous improvement in every aspect of daily life. Started the CQI movement in US businesses; based on the core elements of teamwork, discipline, improved morale, quality circles & suggestions for improvement VI. Reengineering=radical redesign of business processes for dramatic improvement. Focuses on the process (complete end-end set of activities that together create a value for a customer) vs. individual tasks completed by individual employees. Eg. Taco Bell & reengineering –automating company op reduced manager time spent on paperwork & inc manager time on customer service activities. VII. Lean=using less human effort, less space, less capital & less time to make products exactly as the customer wants w/ fewer defects than occur in mass production. According to Nave (2002), there are 5 essential steps in lean: 1) Identify which features create value for internal/external customers, 2) Document value stream, ie seq of activities that create value, 3) improve flow by eliminating things that disrupt flow, 4) Let the customer pull the product/service through the process, ie. Providing product/service only when customer wants it & 5) Perfect the process. Eg. Nutritional Services Team at Florida Hospital in Orlando used lean principles as a result there were reduction in food costs & inc in operational eff & customer satisfaction. VIII. Theory of constraints=concentration on exploiting & elevating constraints that slow production/service; introduced by Goldratt 1984 in his book “The Goal”. A constraint is something that limits an org from reaching its goal; can be physical (capacity of machine/worker)/nonphysical (demand for product/company policies). Companies using this method would 1 identify the constraints, 2 employees & managers would work to exploit/elevate the constraint which involves ways to improve/support process causing the constraint w/o major expense or upgrades. If this doesn’t work, major changes may need to be made to the constraint in what is known as elevating the constraint. IX. Quality Function Deployment=developed by Dr. Yoji Akao due to the inc awareness of the importance of the customer in quality efforts by the company. QFD helps org transform the Voice of the Consumer into a product or service. According to QFDI, QFD seeks out spoken & unspoken customer needs, uncovers pos qualities that wow customer, translates these into designs chara
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