Chapter 8 Safety, Sanitation & Maintenance
-Handwashing & control of time/temp of food items are the most critical elements of food
safety. Planning & monitoring are important elements of successful sanitation, maintenance
& risk management programs.
Functional Subsystem: Safety, sanitation & maintenance
-Safety, sanitation & maintenance is the last major functional subsystem in the foodservice
system & permeates all other subsystems. Ensuring safety in foodservice op is responsibility
of the manager incl safety of employees & guests of that op & safety of food served.
-A foodservice facility has many pot hazards; minor injuries from cuts & burns are common &
more serious injuries occur too freq. Quantity of hot foods handled, type of equip used,
weight & size of products lifted & moved, potential spills & freq frenetic pace of the op require
that safety consciousness be a high priority; accident prevention by managers must also be
high priority. (*note Fig 8-1)
-Maintenance of equipment & facilities is important; safety of surroundings often is related to
cleaning & maintenance practices, eg. spills not cleaned up, grease buildup in hood over
production equipment, etc.
1) Employee Safety
-An accident is an unexpected event resulting in injury, loss or damage or unplanned event
that interrupts an activity/function. According to Goetsch (2010), the most common causes of
workplace accidents are overexertion, impact accidents & falls; Filiaggi & Courtney (2003)
indicate most common injuries in restos were sprain/strains, cuts/ punctures, burns, bruises,
fractures, others. Schweitzer (2010) encouraged inclusion of the ff major components in a
best-practices foodservice safety program:
-Management commitment (managers model safe behaviours, show concern &
investigate employee injuries, modify work environment as needed to make it safer)
-Employee involvement (employees attend safety meetings, view posted safety info,
follow safety practices)
-Communication (communication of req safety behaviours/practices & suggestion
boxes & meetings as ways to share safety concerns)
-Education & training (orientation to safety, OTJ training for safe behaviours)
-Injury reporting & treatment (forms & process for reporting injuries, mechanism for
reviewing injury reports & implementing corrective action as needed)
-Return to work policies (detailing process/procedures for clearance to return to
-Safety program (employee involvement, policies/procedures detailed, training)
-Safe audits & inspection (conduct routine, formal inspections of operation to assure
safe working environment; audit corrective action completion)
-Foodservice op should have an accident prevention program; accidents are expensive &
can result in inc insurance premiums, lost productivity, wasted time, overtime expenses,
workers’ compensation claims, potential lawsuits & human suffering. Many aspects of safety
are related to construction & maintenance of structure & equipment, eg. floors & wiring
should be good, adequate lighting in work areas, hallways & outside facility, exits clearly
marked, fire extinguishers readily available, etc; ie. The basic traffic flow should be designed
to avoid collisions.
-Most accidents are due to human error which is why training is an important part of a safety
program; employees should be taught go prevent accidents by learning to recognize & avoid
or correct hazardous conditions.
Occupational Safety & Health Act (1970)
-Purpose is “to assure, so far as possible, every working man & woman in the Nation safe &
healthful working conditions & to preserve our human resources”. During an OSHA
inspection, a compliance officer will for: accessibility of fire extinguishers & their readiness for
use; guards on floor openings, balcony storage areas & receiving docks; adequate handrails
on stairs; properly maintained ladders; proper guards & electrical grounding for foodservice equip; lighted passageways, clear of obstructions; readily available first-aid supplies &
instructions; proper use of extension cords; & compliance w/ OSHA posting & recordkeeping
-Citations are issued by an OSHA area director upon reviewing compliance officer’s
inspection if standards/rules have been violated; may involve fines or legal action. In a
hospital, foodservice accidents & health inspections are monitored by its Occupational safety
officer or Department of Occupational safety.
-there are more fires that start in foodservice than in any other business. O2, fuel & heat are
req to start & sustain a fire & most fires start w/ the mishandling of fuel & heat; suppressing
the fire typically focuses on reducing/eliminating O2 or the source of fuel for the fire.
-Classes of fires: Class A (are ordinary combustibles incl wood, paper, cloth, cardboard &
plastics), Class B (are flammable liquids incl grease, liquid shortening, oil) & Class C fires
(are electrical equipment incl motors, switches & frayed cords)
-Types of fire extinguishers: Dry Chemical (contains an extinguishing agent; uses
compressed, non-flammable gas as propellant & typically rated for multiple classes of fire),
Water (contains H2O; uses a compressed, non-flammable gas as propellant & used for
Class A fires ONLY), CO2 (contains compressed CO2(l); used for Class B fires ONLY).
-Hot oil in fryers can burst into flames at its flammable limt b/w 425°F-500°F & be the source
of fire or can inc the severity of another fire. A good soln for high-vol restaurants is the
extractor ventilator which is a series of baffles on the hood to extract grease via centrifugal
action; some have automatic wash-down feature to clean inside of hood w/ detergent & hot
H2O at scheduled times; tests have shown these can remove >90% of grease from air.
-Heat & smoke detection devices & some form of fire protection, eg. water mist (operates
from the building’s H2O sprinkler, has unlimited supply of H2O & effective in suffocating all
types of fires) or dry/ wet chemicals (in containers are piped to outlet nozzles above each
equip & once discharged they have to be replaced immediately) should be installed over
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
-PPE items are used to help protect the foodservice worker from injury or illness, eg.
protective glasses & rubber gloves for deliming dish machine, stainless steel mesh gloves
when cleaning slicer, etc. PPEs & special cleaning materials must be used when cleaning up
spills of blood or other bodily fluids; process involves wearing protective gloves & using
isolyzers & disinfectants & ff specific time & process guidelines.
-Those working in healthcare facilities that may enter patient/resident rooms will need to be
familiar w/ use of transmission precautions & need for PPE when entering rooms of those w/
droplet, airborne or contact transmitted illnesses. Depending on illness, they may be req to
wear protective gowns, gloves &/ masks.
Employee Safety Programs
-insurance companies can be an important safety resource in which the service is either incl
in the premium or available at a small charge; service incl establishing a safety program or
reinforcing an existing one. Some insurers conduct audits for op & help w/ employee training
by providing safety manuals/films/videos. A comprehensive safety audit incl thorough
inspection of the facility from the sidewalksin.
-Ergonomics is the study of how workers interact w/ their work environment incl equip, the
workstation & climate; it influences such factors, eg; lighting & footwear which in turn
influences safety. An ergonomic employee safety recommendation would be storing heaviest
items on middle shelves to reduce back strain.
-Equipment manufacturers have developed equipment w/ built-in safety features, eg. gurads
on slicing & chopping machines. Department of Labour has also issued regulations to
prohibit 16-17yr olds from using power-driven food slicers in restaurants, esp quick-service
ops. OSHA req specia “lock out tag out” practices & procedures to prevent employee injury
from unexpected start up of electrical equipment during service & maintenance. Safety training must have major emphasis in initial & in-service employee training. Many resource
materials on safety & accident prevention are available.
-defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) as violent acts
directed towards persons at work or on duty incl. verbal/written threats, threatening body
language, physical or aggravated assaults. Likelihood of workplace violence is inc in org, eg.
restos & similar foodservice ops that work w/ public, have an exchange of money occurring
w/in org & deliver service.
-Uni of Iowa Injury Prevention Research Center (2001) categorized workplace violence into 4
types: Criminal intent (perpetrator has no legitimate linkage to the business & its employees
but commits the violence as part of a crime, eg. robbery), Customer/client (perpetrator has a
legitimate relationship w/ business & becomes violent while being served), Worker-on-worker
(perpetrator is an employee or ex-employee of the business & attacks/threatens another
employee or ex-employee) & Personal relationship (perpetrator is usually not an employee of
the business but has a personal relationship w/ an employee). They reported majority of
workplace homicides were b/c of criminal intent & the majority of healthcare incidents of
workplace violence were b/c of customer/client violence.
-OSHA offers suggestions to reduce workplace violence: establish 0 tolerance policy toward
workplace violence against or by employees; provide workplace safety edu to all employees
inc how to recognize workplace violence, what to do if they experience/ witness it, how to
diffuse potentially violent situations & how to protect themselves; provide security for
workplace via deploying security personnel, installing CCTVs, restricting access to outsiders,
etc.; provide drop safes to limit the amt of cash on hand; & use a buddy system for pot
dangerous situations at night, etc.
2) Customer Safety
-factors for employee safety also apply to customer safety; hazards in the facility may cause
customers to have serious accidents that end in litigation. Customer safety is the
responsibility of the foodservice manager & employees.
-Emergency action procedures should be incl in employee manual & training sessions,
foodservice op should always have a complete first-aid kit—some states have laws
specifying supplies that must be inc in the kit. OSHA req that a resto either have a kit
equipped according to the advice of a company physician or have physical/telephone access
to community emergency services. Ideally, a foodservice op should have present at all time
an employee who is trained & certified in 1 aid, incl how to do the Heimlich maneuver, CPR
& how to identify potential allergic reactions.
3) Food safety
-The Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) warns that mishandling of food has
caused many foodborne outbreaks in foodservice where food is prepared & served to the
public. The Food & Drug Administration (FDA), Food Safety & Inspection Service (FSIS) &
CDC jointly published the Food Code (2009) which is a reference doc for regulatory
agencies responsible for overseeing food safety in retail outlets, eg. restos, grocery stores &
institutions. Food Code provisions are designed to be consistent w/ federal food laws &
regulations & are written for ease of legal adoption at all levels of gov’t.
-The Food Code is neither a federal law nor federal legislation but it represents the FDA’s
best advice for a uniform system of regulation to ensure that food is safe & properly
-Public awareness ahs made consumres more cautious about handling of food at home thus
foodservice managers must eliminate any perception of food safety risk in their ops. CDC is
expanding prevention effeorts to focus on heading off new foodborne pathogens, which are
specific causes of diseases, eg. bacteria, viruses, microorganisms, etc. that can spread
globally by foods tainted w/ even only a low-level contamination. CDC has developed
PulseNet which help public health experts determine whether illnesses are form the same
strain or common exposure source; PulseNet is a program that perform “fingerprinting” on bacteria that may be foodborne; provides an early warning system for outbreaks of
foodborne disease having fingerprinted bacteria data on central CDC computer which is
linked to state & local health departments.
-The safety of food can be impacted by both:
-spoilage which is the unfitness of human consumption due to chemical & biological
causes. Longree & Armbruster (1996) identified a criteria for assuring foods are still fit to eat:
1) desired stage of development/maturity of food, 2) freedom of pollution at any stage in
production & subsequent handling, 3) freedom from objectionable chemical & physical
changes resulting from action of food enzymes, activity of microbes, insects & rodents,
invasion of parasites & damage from pressure, freezing, heating or drying, 4) freedom of
microorganisms & parasites causing foodborne illness
-contamination which is the presence of harmful substances in food; can occur
naturally or be caused by humans or the environment. Contamination is typically
characterized as biological, physical/chemical.
I. Biological contamination: 1000s of microorganisms have been identified, some are
harmless same are pathogens which can cause illness/death. Biological contamination
occurs when pathogens contaminate food & cause a foodborne illness. Today, foodborne
illnesses are recognized as a major health problem in US. CDC estimates there are 76
million cases per year, 5000 killed b/c of it per year & more than half of the reported
foodborne illness were caused by mishandling food in commercial/on-site foodservices
where RTE (ready-to-eat) food is prepared & served to the public. According to ERS, the
most costly foodborne bacterial pathogens are Campylobacter, Salmonella, E.coli O157:H7
-Pathogens can be categorized as bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi & natural toxins; they
are found everywhere that temp, moisture & substrate favour life & growth. Foodborne
microorganisms need the right conditions to grow which is identified by FATTOM:
F (food): specifically cho & pro
A (acidity): a pH of 4.6-7.5 is ideal for growth
T (temperature): growth is best b/w 41°F & 135°F (5° & 57°C)
T (time): food should be in the temp danger zone for max 4 hrs
O (oxygen): some are aerobic & some are anaerobic
M (moisture): water activity (Aw) of 0.85 or higher is ideal for growth
-Bacteria: are microscopic, unicellular organisms of various size & shape incl spherical, rod &
spiral. Requirements for growth vary among diff types but all of them pass through various
phases (*note Fig 8-4): Lag phase (initial stage where bacterial cells exist but little to no
growth occurs), Log phase (a period of rapid growth in a rel short period of time), Stationary
phase (rate of growth dec & eventually stops as bacterial cells begin to die) & Death phase
(bacterial cells die more rapidly than new cells are created due to lack of nutrients & excess
waste the cells secrete).
: Food is the most important condition needed for bacterial growths, particularly those
in high cho & pro; pH value also affects growth though bacteria vary widely in their reaction
to pH—some are quite tolerant acid & generally grow best at neutral pH which is why acid is
often used as a preservation agent to suppress bacterial multiplication. Multiplication of
organisms causing foodborne infections & illnesses are supported in slightly acidic, neutral &
basic food. (*fig 8-5) They have specific temp req for growth; grows fastest at optimum temp
but more slowly w/in min & max around its optimum. Potentially hazardous foods (time/temp
control for safety foods) are those that req temp control b/c they are capable of supporting
growth of pathogenic microorganisms /toxin formation, eg. milk & dairy products, meat,
poultry, lam, fish & shellfish, eggs, raw sprouts, baked potatoes, tofu & sliced melons.
: In general spores of microorganisms are more heat resistant, low humidity & other
adverse conditions than vegetative mature cells, which are dormant & asexual. Spores
remain dormant for long periods & germinate when conditions are favourable into new,
sensitive, vegetative cells. The heat resistance of microorganism is their thermal death time which is the time req at a specific temp to kill a specified number of vegetative cells or
spores; depends on age of org, temp it is exposed, length of time heat is applied, presence
of moisture & nature of medium. So, time & temp are important in preserving microbiological
quality of food. Bacteria need ~4hrs to produce enough cells to cause illness.
: Aerobic bacteria need O2 to grow & anaerobic bacteria reproduce w/o O2.
Multiplication of bacteria is affected by Aw, so >8.5 to grow. H2O becomes less available for
bacteria through presence of solutes, eg. salt & sugar, freezing & dehydration. Longree &
Armbruster says that inhibitors may be integral in the food, developed during processing as a
product of the microorganism’s metabolism or added purposely by the processor. Eg.
benzoic acid in cranberries, lyzosymes in egg whites are natural inhibitors; alcohol produced
from fermentation of yeast in fruit juices or wine may be an inhibitor that becomes toxic when
: Some bacteria produce toxins in food as they grow & die which often can’t be
destroyed by heating or freezing & can cause illness or death. Foodborne infections are
caused by the activity of large #s of bacterial cells carried by the food into the GI tract vs.
Foodborne intoxications are caused by toxins formed in food prior to consumption &
consuming it causes the illness; symptoms may occur w/in as little as 2hrs but incubation
period of an infection is usually longer. (note Table 8-1 & 8-2; symptoms of each are freq
severe & commonly incl nausea, cramping, vomiting & diarrhea)
-Viruses: are small pathogens that are not a complete cell; they multiply in living cells of the
hosts but not in cooked foods; capable of causing diseases in plants, animals & humans; can
be carried in food & water & are easily transferred b/w ppl & b/w food & ppl. Viruses
resemble bacteria in that the right temp, nutrients, moisture & pH are necessary for effective
growth & reproduction. Eg. of human diseases by viruses are influenza, poliomyelitis,
chickenpox, hepatitis some assoc’d w/ foodborne outbreaks. Many viruses are inactivated by
high temp (149°F-212°F) & by refrigeration. (table 8-3)
-Parasites: are living organisms that need a host to survive
: Trichinae=parasite that causes trichinosis which is a foodborne disease that affects
the muscles of the body. May be acquired form eating undercooked meat from infected
animal, pork, pork products & wild animal meat are primary sources of parasite. Preventable
if food is cooked to proper end-pt temp, 160°F for pork.
: Anisakis simplex=current popularity of raw seafood dishes has introduced a new
source of tapeworm & roundworm infestation. Anisakis, is a form of round work that attaches
itself to wall of digestive organs & req surgery to dislodge it; destroyed by cooking/freezing;
results in Anisakiasis. Food Code indicates fish that is not to be cooked thoroughly should be
frozen to -31°F & below & stored at -4°F or below for 24hrs; frozen to -31°F or below &
stored for 15hrs or frozen to -4°F & stored for 168hrs. Foodservice operator must keep a
record of the process on file for 90 days.
: Cyclospora cayetanensis, cryptosporidium parvum, giardia duodenalis=found in
feces of contaminated individuals or contaminated H2O; are sometimes transmitted when
improperly treated H2O is used to irrigate produce & produce isn’t washed properly before
eating; infected individuals can transmit parasite to others if proper handwashign methods
: Cyclospora cayetanensis is a microscopic parasite composed of a single cell.
Cyclospora infection often is found in ppl who live/travel in ING countries & consume
contaminated H2O or fresh produced washed in that H2O; time b/w becoming infected &
showing symptoms is ~a wk or longer.
-Fungi: includes single & multicellular organisms, eg. molds, yeasts & mushrooms. Molds are
larger than bacteria & have a more complex structure; they generally grow on a wider range
of substrates—moist/dry, acid/nonacid, high/low in salt/sugar & grow on wide range of temp
(b/w 77°F & 86°F); some food, eg. blue cheese, have mold as a natural components of the
product. Yeasts aren’t known to cause foodborne illnesses but may cause spoilage of sugar-
containing foods; are unicellular plants that play an important role in fermentation or leavening of beer, wine & bread; can induce undesirable rxns resulting in sour/vinegary
taste. Mushrooms are a type of fungi, many forms are safe to eat but some are toxic & can
cause foodborne illness if eaten
-Natural toxins: can’t be killed by freezing, cooking or curing & are produced by
microorganisms that cause biological contamination to occur. Fish toxins incl histamine,
ciguatoxin, saxioxin, bretoxin & domoic acid
:Histamine=scombroid poisoning occurs when persons consume scombroid &
related species of fish (tuna, mackerel, mahi mahi) that have been timep/temp abused &
bacteria on fish have produced high levels of histamine. Histamine can cause allergic rxns,
eg.headache, burning in throat & mouth, reddening of the face & neck & sweating.
: Ciguatoxin, saxitoxin, brevetoxin & domoic acid=many species of marine algae
contain toxins which enter fish & shellfish & are then passed on to humans who consume
them. Ciguatera poisoning occurs w/ consumption of ciguatoxin found in predatory tropical
reef fish, eg. Barracuda. Saxitoxin causes paralytic shellfish poisoning, Brevetoxin causes
neurotic shellfish poisoning & domoic aced causes amnesic shellfish poisoning which can be
in shellfish from contaminated waters. None of these are destroyed by cooking/freezing
: Mushroom toxins=there are 4 categories: protoplasmic posions (amanitin,
gyromitrin, orellanine), neurotoxins (ibotenic acid, muscimol, psilocybin), gastrointestinal
irritants & disulfiram-like toxins. Produced naturaaly by various types of mushrooms; can’t be
destroyed by cooking/freezing & depending on the type of toxin can cause gastrointestinal
distress, neurological impairment, organ failure & death.
: Prions=aka proteinaceous infections particle; are small glycosylated pro found in
brain cell membranes. Prion diseases, aka transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)
are infectious diseases of the brain occurring in both animals & humans. BSE/mad cow
disease in cattle, scrapie in sheep, Creutzfield Jakob Disease (CJD)/Gerstmann Straussler
syndrome (GSS) in humans. Transmissible b/w species & period of time b/w infection &
appearance of clinical symptoms in >10yrs in humans which incl behavioural changes,
ataxia, progressive dementia & death.
II. Physical contamination
-occurs when particles that are not supposed to be in a product are accidentally introduced
to it, eg. broken glass, metal curls, staples, fingernails, hairs, etc. Dangers caused by
physical contaminants may result from tampering incidents esp w/ soft-packed food items;
food items delivered to foodservice op should be rejected if evidence of tampering is seen.
III. Chemical contamination
-occurs when substances eg. chemicals, toxic metals or sanitizers are introduced intor a food
pro. Eg. contamination of food w/ foodservice chemicals sugh as pesticides, detergents &
sanitizers; use of excessive quantities of additives, preservatives, spices; acidic action of
foods w/ metal-lined containers; & contamination of food w/ toxic metals.
-Pesticides are chemicals that kill or discourage growth of pests which are organisms that
cause damage to food making it inedible, unappealing or unsafe. Integrated Pest
Management (IPM) is an alt in agri to control pests & also used in foodservice to prevent
pests from entering ope & eliminate them if they do.
- In agri, IPM incorporates latest agri technologies & biological controls, incl pest predators &
diseases to dec amt of pesticide use; the USDA & FDA are responsible for monitoring the
food supply to ensure residue levels are w/in tolerance limits. In foodservice, IPM involves
preventing pests’ access to op, eliminating sources of food, water & nesting places for pests
w/in op, & working w/ licensed PCO to eliminate pests if they do enter; most common pests
are cockroaches, rodents, flies & fruit flies.
-Labels should be read carefully for directions & how to use foodservice chemicals & how to
store them under safe conditions away from food (detergents, polishes, caustic & cleaning &
drying agents). Preservatives used to preserve flavour, safety & consistency of foods have
been linked to food contamination vs. additives which are used to enhance appearance &/
flavour of product can become a chemical contaminate if in excess or given to someone w/ an allergy/sensitivity to the product. Eg. Nitrites used in meats has been linked w/ cancer
when meat is overbrowned/burned, sulfites on fresh vegetables, fruits, shrimp, dried fruit &
wine (now foodservice use lemon juice/citric acid to preserve colour in fresh produce as FDA
prohibitis use of sulfites on these foods).
-MSG is a food additive that serves as a flavour enhancer & b/c its often heavily used in
Chinese & Japanese foods, apparent rxns to MSG have been called “Chinese Restaurant
Syndrome”; very high in sodium; ppl w/ rxns to MSG report to feel a tightening of the face &
neck skin, tingling sensations, dizziness & headache; but apparently only affects those w/
sensitivities to MSG but nonetheless, federal law requires it to be listed on the label of any
product to which its added. Food irradiation is a food additive as well & regulated by FDA; it
controls microbes responsible for foodborne illness & extends shelf life of refrigerated foods,
eg.fresh fruits & veggies by delaying ripening & extends shelf life of stored foods, eg. spices
-A food allergy is the body’s immune rxn to certain foods; symptoms incl itching/ swelling in
or around the mouth, face & scalp, tightening in throat, wheezing/shortness of breath, hives,
stomach cramps, vomiting or diarrhea, loos of consciousnesss & even death. Some of the
most common food allergens incl peanuts & treenuts, milk & dairy products, eggs, shellfish,
what & soys. To reduce chance of allergic rxns by customers, label foods w/ these allergens,
having waitstaff be able to describe ingredients & avoiding cross-contamination in food
-Poisoning may result if brass/copper, galvanized or gray enamelware containers are used &
if it contains high acid foods. Fruit juices, sauerkraut, tomatoes, fruit gelatins, lemonade &
fruit punches have been implicated in metal poisonings. Cu may become poisonous when
it’s in prolonged contact w/ acid foods & carbonated beverages; mmet placed directly on Cd-
plated refrigerator shelves may be rendered poisonous.
Foodservice Operational Practices to Assure the Safety of Food
-Ultimate goal of a foodservice manager is to assure that a safe food product is served to
customers to protect them from foodborne illness. They take responsibility for purchasing,
producing &serving safe food to customers & for training employees continually.
-Food safety in food purchasing: possibilities for contamination of food before it’s purchased
incl contaminated equipment, infected pests & animals, untreated sewage, unsafe water &
soil (*fig 8-6). After purchase, possibilities of contamination exist in storage, preparation &
service of food (*fig 8-7); after consumption illness occurs & then comes transmission to
-Imported foods particularly produce have been linked to a growing # of foodborne
illness outbreaks thus foodservice operators can avoid pot contaminated foods by using
reputable producers & suppliers who should comply w/ growing & transpo standards set by
the Product Marketing Assoc’n. Foodservice managers should visit & inspect the vendor’s
facilities to assure they are using Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) & Good Agricultural
-Food safety in receiving & storage: food safety starts in the receiving area of the foodservice
op. Deliveries should be made in off-peak hrs to allow suff time to inspect deliveries carefully;
inspecting for right temp & condition of the product. Food safety criteria in receiving incl:
-Meat=41°F or below; bright red colour, firm, nonslimy texture, no odor, intact & clean
-Poultry=41°F or below; bright red gills & bright shiny skin, firm flesh, mild
ocean/seaweed smell, bright & clear full eyes, frozen/packed in crushed, self-draining ice.