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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Safety.doc

14 Pages

Nutrition and Food
Course Code
FNS 200
Donna Barnes

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Chapter 8 Safety, Sanitation & Maintenance -Handwashing & control of time/temp of food items are the most critical elements of food safety. Planning & monitoring are important elements of successful sanitation, maintenance & risk management programs. Functional Subsystem: Safety, sanitation & maintenance -Safety, sanitation & maintenance is the last major functional subsystem in the foodservice system & permeates all other subsystems. Ensuring safety in foodservice op is responsibility of the manager incl safety of employees & guests of that op & safety of food served. -A foodservice facility has many pot hazards; minor injuries from cuts & burns are common & more serious injuries occur too freq. Quantity of hot foods handled, type of equip used, weight & size of products lifted & moved, potential spills & freq frenetic pace of the op require that safety consciousness be a high priority; accident prevention by managers must also be high priority. (*note Fig 8-1) -Maintenance of equipment & facilities is important; safety of surroundings often is related to cleaning & maintenance practices, eg. spills not cleaned up, grease buildup in hood over production equipment, etc. 1) Employee Safety -An accident is an unexpected event resulting in injury, loss or damage or unplanned event that interrupts an activity/function. According to Goetsch (2010), the most common causes of workplace accidents are overexertion, impact accidents & falls; Filiaggi & Courtney (2003) indicate most common injuries in restos were sprain/strains, cuts/ punctures, burns, bruises, fractures, others. Schweitzer (2010) encouraged inclusion of the ff major components in a best-practices foodservice safety program: -Management commitment (managers model safe behaviours, show concern & investigate employee injuries, modify work environment as needed to make it safer) -Employee involvement (employees attend safety meetings, view posted safety info, follow safety practices) -Communication (communication of req safety behaviours/practices & suggestion boxes & meetings as ways to share safety concerns) -Education & training (orientation to safety, OTJ training for safe behaviours) -Injury reporting & treatment (forms & process for reporting injuries, mechanism for reviewing injury reports & implementing corrective action as needed) -Return to work policies (detailing process/procedures for clearance to return to work) -Safety program (employee involvement, policies/procedures detailed, training) -Safe audits & inspection (conduct routine, formal inspections of operation to assure safe working environment; audit corrective action completion) -Foodservice op should have an accident prevention program; accidents are expensive & can result in inc insurance premiums, lost productivity, wasted time, overtime expenses, workers’ compensation claims, potential lawsuits & human suffering. Many aspects of safety are related to construction & maintenance of structure & equipment, eg. floors & wiring should be good, adequate lighting in work areas, hallways & outside facility, exits clearly marked, fire extinguishers readily available, etc; ie. The basic traffic flow should be designed to avoid collisions. -Most accidents are due to human error which is why training is an important part of a safety program; employees should be taught go prevent accidents by learning to recognize & avoid or correct hazardous conditions. Occupational Safety & Health Act (1970) -Purpose is “to assure, so far as possible, every working man & woman in the Nation safe & healthful working conditions & to preserve our human resources”. During an OSHA inspection, a compliance officer will for: accessibility of fire extinguishers & their readiness for use; guards on floor openings, balcony storage areas & receiving docks; adequate handrails on stairs; properly maintained ladders; proper guards & electrical grounding for foodservice equip; lighted passageways, clear of obstructions; readily available first-aid supplies & instructions; proper use of extension cords; & compliance w/ OSHA posting & recordkeeping requirements. -Citations are issued by an OSHA area director upon reviewing compliance officer’s inspection if standards/rules have been violated; may involve fines or legal action. In a hospital, foodservice accidents & health inspections are monitored by its Occupational safety officer or Department of Occupational safety. Fire Safety -there are more fires that start in foodservice than in any other business. O2, fuel & heat are req to start & sustain a fire & most fires start w/ the mishandling of fuel & heat; suppressing the fire typically focuses on reducing/eliminating O2 or the source of fuel for the fire. -Classes of fires: Class A (are ordinary combustibles incl wood, paper, cloth, cardboard & plastics), Class B (are flammable liquids incl grease, liquid shortening, oil) & Class C fires (are electrical equipment incl motors, switches & frayed cords) -Types of fire extinguishers: Dry Chemical (contains an extinguishing agent; uses compressed, non-flammable gas as propellant & typically rated for multiple classes of fire), Water (contains H2O; uses a compressed, non-flammable gas as propellant & used for Class A fires ONLY), CO2 (contains compressed CO2(l); used for Class B fires ONLY). -Hot oil in fryers can burst into flames at its flammable limt b/w 425°F-500°F & be the source of fire or can inc the severity of another fire. A good soln for high-vol restaurants is the extractor ventilator which is a series of baffles on the hood to extract grease via centrifugal action; some have automatic wash-down feature to clean inside of hood w/ detergent & hot H2O at scheduled times; tests have shown these can remove >90% of grease from air. -Heat & smoke detection devices & some form of fire protection, eg. water mist (operates from the building’s H2O sprinkler, has unlimited supply of H2O & effective in suffocating all types of fires) or dry/ wet chemicals (in containers are piped to outlet nozzles above each equip & once discharged they have to be replaced immediately) should be installed over cooking equipment. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) -PPE items are used to help protect the foodservice worker from injury or illness, eg. protective glasses & rubber gloves for deliming dish machine, stainless steel mesh gloves when cleaning slicer, etc. PPEs & special cleaning materials must be used when cleaning up spills of blood or other bodily fluids; process involves wearing protective gloves & using isolyzers & disinfectants & ff specific time & process guidelines. -Those working in healthcare facilities that may enter patient/resident rooms will need to be familiar w/ use of transmission precautions & need for PPE when entering rooms of those w/ droplet, airborne or contact transmitted illnesses. Depending on illness, they may be req to wear protective gowns, gloves &/ masks. Employee Safety Programs -insurance companies can be an important safety resource in which the service is either incl in the premium or available at a small charge; service incl establishing a safety program or reinforcing an existing one. Some insurers conduct audits for op & help w/ employee training by providing safety manuals/films/videos. A comprehensive safety audit incl thorough inspection of the facility from the sidewalksin. -Ergonomics is the study of how workers interact w/ their work environment incl equip, the workstation & climate; it influences such factors, eg; lighting & footwear which in turn influences safety. An ergonomic employee safety recommendation would be storing heaviest items on middle shelves to reduce back strain. -Equipment manufacturers have developed equipment w/ built-in safety features, eg. gurads on slicing & chopping machines. Department of Labour has also issued regulations to prohibit 16-17yr olds from using power-driven food slicers in restaurants, esp quick-service ops. OSHA req specia “lock out tag out” practices & procedures to prevent employee injury from unexpected start up of electrical equipment during service & maintenance. Safety training must have major emphasis in initial & in-service employee training. Many resource materials on safety & accident prevention are available. Workplace violence -defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) as violent acts directed towards persons at work or on duty incl. verbal/written threats, threatening body language, physical or aggravated assaults. Likelihood of workplace violence is inc in org, eg. restos & similar foodservice ops that work w/ public, have an exchange of money occurring w/in org & deliver service. -Uni of Iowa Injury Prevention Research Center (2001) categorized workplace violence into 4 types: Criminal intent (perpetrator has no legitimate linkage to the business & its employees but commits the violence as part of a crime, eg. robbery), Customer/client (perpetrator has a legitimate relationship w/ business & becomes violent while being served), Worker-on-worker (perpetrator is an employee or ex-employee of the business & attacks/threatens another employee or ex-employee) & Personal relationship (perpetrator is usually not an employee of the business but has a personal relationship w/ an employee). They reported majority of workplace homicides were b/c of criminal intent & the majority of healthcare incidents of workplace violence were b/c of customer/client violence. -OSHA offers suggestions to reduce workplace violence: establish 0 tolerance policy toward workplace violence against or by employees; provide workplace safety edu to all employees inc how to recognize workplace violence, what to do if they experience/ witness it, how to diffuse potentially violent situations & how to protect themselves; provide security for workplace via deploying security personnel, installing CCTVs, restricting access to outsiders, etc.; provide drop safes to limit the amt of cash on hand; & use a buddy system for pot dangerous situations at night, etc. 2) Customer Safety -factors for employee safety also apply to customer safety; hazards in the facility may cause customers to have serious accidents that end in litigation. Customer safety is the responsibility of the foodservice manager & employees. -Emergency action procedures should be incl in employee manual & training sessions, foodservice op should always have a complete first-aid kit—some states have laws specifying supplies that must be inc in the kit. OSHA req that a resto either have a kit equipped according to the advice of a company physician or have physical/telephone access to community emergency services. Ideally, a foodservice op should have present at all time an employee who is trained & certified in 1 aid, incl how to do the Heimlich maneuver, CPR & how to identify potential allergic reactions. 3) Food safety -The Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) warns that mishandling of food has caused many foodborne outbreaks in foodservice where food is prepared & served to the public. The Food & Drug Administration (FDA), Food Safety & Inspection Service (FSIS) & CDC jointly published the Food Code (2009) which is a reference doc for regulatory agencies responsible for overseeing food safety in retail outlets, eg. restos, grocery stores & institutions. Food Code provisions are designed to be consistent w/ federal food laws & regulations & are written for ease of legal adoption at all levels of gov’t. -The Food Code is neither a federal law nor federal legislation but it represents the FDA’s best advice for a uniform system of regulation to ensure that food is safe & properly protected. -Public awareness ahs made consumres more cautious about handling of food at home thus foodservice managers must eliminate any perception of food safety risk in their ops. CDC is expanding prevention effeorts to focus on heading off new foodborne pathogens, which are specific causes of diseases, eg. bacteria, viruses, microorganisms, etc. that can spread globally by foods tainted w/ even only a low-level contamination. CDC has developed PulseNet which help public health experts determine whether illnesses are form the same strain or common exposure source; PulseNet is a program that perform “fingerprinting” on bacteria that may be foodborne; provides an early warning system for outbreaks of foodborne disease having fingerprinted bacteria data on central CDC computer which is linked to state & local health departments. -The safety of food can be impacted by both: -spoilage which is the unfitness of human consumption due to chemical & biological causes. Longree & Armbruster (1996) identified a criteria for assuring foods are still fit to eat: 1) desired stage of development/maturity of food, 2) freedom of pollution at any stage in production & subsequent handling, 3) freedom from objectionable chemical & physical changes resulting from action of food enzymes, activity of microbes, insects & rodents, invasion of parasites & damage from pressure, freezing, heating or drying, 4) freedom of microorganisms & parasites causing foodborne illness -contamination which is the presence of harmful substances in food; can occur naturally or be caused by humans or the environment. Contamination is typically characterized as biological, physical/chemical. I. Biological contamination: 1000s of microorganisms have been identified, some are harmless same are pathogens which can cause illness/death. Biological contamination occurs when pathogens contaminate food & cause a foodborne illness. Today, foodborne illnesses are recognized as a major health problem in US. CDC estimates there are 76 million cases per year, 5000 killed b/c of it per year & more than half of the reported foodborne illness were caused by mishandling food in commercial/on-site foodservices where RTE (ready-to-eat) food is prepared & served to the public. According to ERS, the most costly foodborne bacterial pathogens are Campylobacter, Salmonella, E.coli O157:H7 & Listeria. -Pathogens can be categorized as bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi & natural toxins; they are found everywhere that temp, moisture & substrate favour life & growth. Foodborne microorganisms need the right conditions to grow which is identified by FATTOM: F (food): specifically cho & pro A (acidity): a pH of 4.6-7.5 is ideal for growth T (temperature): growth is best b/w 41°F & 135°F (5° & 57°C) T (time): food should be in the temp danger zone for max 4 hrs O (oxygen): some are aerobic & some are anaerobic M (moisture): water activity (Aw) of 0.85 or higher is ideal for growth -Bacteria: are microscopic, unicellular organisms of various size & shape incl spherical, rod & spiral. Requirements for growth vary among diff types but all of them pass through various phases (*note Fig 8-4): Lag phase (initial stage where bacterial cells exist but little to no growth occurs), Log phase (a period of rapid growth in a rel short period of time), Stationary phase (rate of growth dec & eventually stops as bacterial cells begin to die) & Death phase (bacterial cells die more rapidly than new cells are created due to lack of nutrients & excess waste the cells secrete). : Food is the most important condition needed for bacterial growths, particularly those in high cho & pro; pH value also affects growth though bacteria vary widely in their reaction to pH—some are quite tolerant acid & generally grow best at neutral pH which is why acid is often used as a preservation agent to suppress bacterial multiplication. Multiplication of organisms causing foodborne infections & illnesses are supported in slightly acidic, neutral & basic food. (*fig 8-5) They have specific temp req for growth; grows fastest at optimum temp but more slowly w/in min & max around its optimum. Potentially hazardous foods (time/temp control for safety foods) are those that req temp control b/c they are capable of supporting growth of pathogenic microorganisms /toxin formation, eg. milk & dairy products, meat, poultry, lam, fish & shellfish, eggs, raw sprouts, baked potatoes, tofu & sliced melons. : In general spores of microorganisms are more heat resistant, low humidity & other adverse conditions than vegetative mature cells, which are dormant & asexual. Spores remain dormant for long periods & germinate when conditions are favourable into new, sensitive, vegetative cells. The heat resistance of microorganism is their thermal death time which is the time req at a specific temp to kill a specified number of vegetative cells or spores; depends on age of org, temp it is exposed, length of time heat is applied, presence of moisture & nature of medium. So, time & temp are important in preserving microbiological quality of food. Bacteria need ~4hrs to produce enough cells to cause illness. : Aerobic bacteria need O2 to grow & anaerobic bacteria reproduce w/o O2. Multiplication of bacteria is affected by Aw, so >8.5 to grow. H2O becomes less available for bacteria through presence of solutes, eg. salt & sugar, freezing & dehydration. Longree & Armbruster says that inhibitors may be integral in the food, developed during processing as a product of the microorganism’s metabolism or added purposely by the processor. Eg. benzoic acid in cranberries, lyzosymes in egg whites are natural inhibitors; alcohol produced from fermentation of yeast in fruit juices or wine may be an inhibitor that becomes toxic when accumulated. : Some bacteria produce toxins in food as they grow & die which often can’t be destroyed by heating or freezing & can cause illness or death. Foodborne infections are caused by the activity of large #s of bacterial cells carried by the food into the GI tract vs. Foodborne intoxications are caused by toxins formed in food prior to consumption & consuming it causes the illness; symptoms may occur w/in as little as 2hrs but incubation period of an infection is usually longer. (note Table 8-1 & 8-2; symptoms of each are freq severe & commonly incl nausea, cramping, vomiting & diarrhea) -Viruses: are small pathogens that are not a complete cell; they multiply in living cells of the hosts but not in cooked foods; capable of causing diseases in plants, animals & humans; can be carried in food & water & are easily transferred b/w ppl & b/w food & ppl. Viruses resemble bacteria in that the right temp, nutrients, moisture & pH are necessary for effective growth & reproduction. Eg. of human diseases by viruses are influenza, poliomyelitis, chickenpox, hepatitis some assoc’d w/ foodborne outbreaks. Many viruses are inactivated by high temp (149°F-212°F) & by refrigeration. (table 8-3) -Parasites: are living organisms that need a host to survive : Trichinae=parasite that causes trichinosis which is a foodborne disease that affects the muscles of the body. May be acquired form eating undercooked meat from infected animal, pork, pork products & wild animal meat are primary sources of parasite. Preventable if food is cooked to proper end-pt temp, 160°F for pork. : Anisakis simplex=current popularity of raw seafood dishes has introduced a new source of tapeworm & roundworm infestation. Anisakis, is a form of round work that attaches itself to wall of digestive organs & req surgery to dislodge it; destroyed by cooking/freezing; results in Anisakiasis. Food Code indicates fish that is not to be cooked thoroughly should be frozen to -31°F & below & stored at -4°F or below for 24hrs; frozen to -31°F or below & stored for 15hrs or frozen to -4°F & stored for 168hrs. Foodservice operator must keep a record of the process on file for 90 days. : Cyclospora cayetanensis, cryptosporidium parvum, giardia duodenalis=found in feces of contaminated individuals or contaminated H2O; are sometimes transmitted when improperly treated H2O is used to irrigate produce & produce isn’t washed properly before eating; infected individuals can transmit parasite to others if proper handwashign methods aren’t used. : Cyclospora cayetanensis is a microscopic parasite composed of a single cell. Cyclospora infection often is found in ppl who live/travel in ING countries & consume contaminated H2O or fresh produced washed in that H2O; time b/w becoming infected & showing symptoms is ~a wk or longer. -Fungi: includes single & multicellular organisms, eg. molds, yeasts & mushrooms. Molds are larger than bacteria & have a more complex structure; they generally grow on a wider range of substrates—moist/dry, acid/nonacid, high/low in salt/sugar & grow on wide range of temp (b/w 77°F & 86°F); some food, eg. blue cheese, have mold as a natural components of the product. Yeasts aren’t known to cause foodborne illnesses but may cause spoilage of sugar- containing foods; are unicellular plants that play an important role in fermentation or leavening of beer, wine & bread; can induce undesirable rxns resulting in sour/vinegary taste. Mushrooms are a type of fungi, many forms are safe to eat but some are toxic & can cause foodborne illness if eaten -Natural toxins: can’t be killed by freezing, cooking or curing & are produced by microorganisms that cause biological contamination to occur. Fish toxins incl histamine, ciguatoxin, saxioxin, bretoxin & domoic acid :Histamine=scombroid poisoning occurs when persons consume scombroid & related species of fish (tuna, mackerel, mahi mahi) that have been timep/temp abused & bacteria on fish have produced high levels of histamine. Histamine can cause allergic rxns, eg.headache, burning in throat & mouth, reddening of the face & neck & sweating. : Ciguatoxin, saxitoxin, brevetoxin & domoic acid=many species of marine algae contain toxins which enter fish & shellfish & are then passed on to humans who consume them. Ciguatera poisoning occurs w/ consumption of ciguatoxin found in predatory tropical reef fish, eg. Barracuda. Saxitoxin causes paralytic shellfish poisoning, Brevetoxin causes neurotic shellfish poisoning & domoic aced causes amnesic shellfish poisoning which can be in shellfish from contaminated waters. None of these are destroyed by cooking/freezing : Mushroom toxins=there are 4 categories: protoplasmic posions (amanitin, gyromitrin, orellanine), neurotoxins (ibotenic acid, muscimol, psilocybin), gastrointestinal irritants & disulfiram-like toxins. Produced naturaaly by various types of mushrooms; can’t be destroyed by cooking/freezing & depending on the type of toxin can cause gastrointestinal distress, neurological impairment, organ failure & death. : Prions=aka proteinaceous infections particle; are small glycosylated pro found in brain cell membranes. Prion diseases, aka transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) are infectious diseases of the brain occurring in both animals & humans. BSE/mad cow disease in cattle, scrapie in sheep, Creutzfield Jakob Disease (CJD)/Gerstmann Straussler syndrome (GSS) in humans. Transmissible b/w species & period of time b/w infection & appearance of clinical symptoms in >10yrs in humans which incl behavioural changes, ataxia, progressive dementia & death. II. Physical contamination -occurs when particles that are not supposed to be in a product are accidentally introduced to it, eg. broken glass, metal curls, staples, fingernails, hairs, etc. Dangers caused by physical contaminants may result from tampering incidents esp w/ soft-packed food items; food items delivered to foodservice op should be rejected if evidence of tampering is seen. III. Chemical contamination -occurs when substances eg. chemicals, toxic metals or sanitizers are introduced intor a food pro. Eg. contamination of food w/ foodservice chemicals sugh as pesticides, detergents & sanitizers; use of excessive quantities of additives, preservatives, spices; acidic action of foods w/ metal-lined containers; & contamination of food w/ toxic metals. -Pesticides are chemicals that kill or discourage growth of pests which are organisms that cause damage to food making it inedible, unappealing or unsafe. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an alt in agri to control pests & also used in foodservice to prevent pests from entering ope & eliminate them if they do. - In agri, IPM incorporates latest agri technologies & biological controls, incl pest predators & diseases to dec amt of pesticide use; the USDA & FDA are responsible for monitoring the food supply to ensure residue levels are w/in tolerance limits. In foodservice, IPM involves preventing pests’ access to op, eliminating sources of food, water & nesting places for pests w/in op, & working w/ licensed PCO to eliminate pests if they do enter; most common pests are cockroaches, rodents, flies & fruit flies. -Labels should be read carefully for directions & how to use foodservice chemicals & how to store them under safe conditions away from food (detergents, polishes, caustic & cleaning & drying agents). Preservatives used to preserve flavour, safety & consistency of foods have been linked to food contamination vs. additives which are used to enhance appearance &/ flavour of product can become a chemical contaminate if in excess or given to someone w/ an allergy/sensitivity to the product. Eg. Nitrites used in meats has been linked w/ cancer when meat is overbrowned/burned, sulfites on fresh vegetables, fruits, shrimp, dried fruit & wine (now foodservice use lemon juice/citric acid to preserve colour in fresh produce as FDA prohibitis use of sulfites on these foods). -MSG is a food additive that serves as a flavour enhancer & b/c its often heavily used in Chinese & Japanese foods, apparent rxns to MSG have been called “Chinese Restaurant Syndrome”; very high in sodium; ppl w/ rxns to MSG report to feel a tightening of the face & neck skin, tingling sensations, dizziness & headache; but apparently only affects those w/ sensitivities to MSG but nonetheless, federal law requires it to be listed on the label of any product to which its added. Food irradiation is a food additive as well & regulated by FDA; it controls microbes responsible for foodborne illness & extends shelf life of refrigerated foods, eg.fresh fruits & veggies by delaying ripening & extends shelf life of stored foods, eg. spices & hebs. -A food allergy is the body’s immune rxn to certain foods; symptoms incl itching/ swelling in or around the mouth, face & scalp, tightening in throat, wheezing/shortness of breath, hives, stomach cramps, vomiting or diarrhea, loos of consciousnesss & even death. Some of the most common food allergens incl peanuts & treenuts, milk & dairy products, eggs, shellfish, what & soys. To reduce chance of allergic rxns by customers, label foods w/ these allergens, having waitstaff be able to describe ingredients & avoiding cross-contamination in food production -Poisoning may result if brass/copper, galvanized or gray enamelware containers are used & if it contains high acid foods. Fruit juices, sauerkraut, tomatoes, fruit gelatins, lemonade & fruit punches have been implicated in metal poisonings. Cu may become poisonous when it’s in prolonged contact w/ acid foods & carbonated beverages; mmet placed directly on Cd- plated refrigerator shelves may be rendered poisonous. Foodservice Operational Practices to Assure the Safety of Food -Ultimate goal of a foodservice manager is to assure that a safe food product is served to customers to protect them from foodborne illness. They take responsibility for purchasing, producing &serving safe food to customers & for training employees continually. -Food safety in food purchasing: possibilities for contamination of food before it’s purchased incl contaminated equipment, infected pests & animals, untreated sewage, unsafe water & soil (*fig 8-6). After purchase, possibilities of contamination exist in storage, preparation & service of food (*fig 8-7); after consumption illness occurs & then comes transmission to other persons. -Imported foods particularly produce have been linked to a growing # of foodborne illness outbreaks thus foodservice operators can avoid pot contaminated foods by using reputable producers & suppliers who should comply w/ growing & transpo standards set by the Product Marketing Assoc’n. Foodservice managers should visit & inspect the vendor’s facilities to assure they are using Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) & Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). -Food safety in receiving & storage: food safety starts in the receiving area of the foodservice op. Deliveries should be made in off-peak hrs to allow suff time to inspect deliveries carefully; inspecting for right temp & condition of the product. Food safety criteria in receiving incl: -Meat=41°F or below; bright red colour, firm, nonslimy texture, no odor, intact & clean packaging -Poultry=41°F or below; bright red gills & bright shiny skin, firm flesh, mild ocean/seaweed smell, bright & clear full eyes, frozen/packed in crushed, self-draining ice.
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