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PHL 214 (64)


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PHL 214
Asher Alkoby

CHAPTER 3 pages 5463 7684CATEGORICAL ARGUMENTSCategorical syllogism categorical arguments inference from two categorical premisesCATEGORICAL STATEMENTS All types contain asubject term which tell us things the statement is aboutpredicate term which characterizes the members of the subject terma scope word which tells us how many members were talking about all or somecopulais are which joins subject to predicateA universal affirmation all members A particular affirmation some membersAll dogs are mammals Some plants are carnivoresA statements All S are PI statements Some S are PA universal negation no membersA particular negation some membersNo women are fathersSome men are not unclesE statements No S are P O statements Some S are not PDISTRIBUTED AND UNDISTRIBUTED TERMS A distributed term makes a claim about all members of the class that it names An undistributed term makes a claim about some but not all of the members of the class that it namesDistribution of subject terms Distribution of predicate terms In universal statements are distributed Predicate terms in affirmative statements are undistributed In particular statements are undistributedPredicate terms in negative statements are distributedSubject TermPredicate TermDistributedAEEOUndistributedIOAIUniversalParticularAffirmativeAll S are PI Some S are PA Subject term distributedSubject term undistributedPredicate term undistributedPredicate term undistributedNegativeE No S are PO Some S are not PSubject term undistributedSubject term distributedPredicate term distributedPredicate term distributed CATEGORICAL ARGUMENTSMajor terms the predicate of the conclusionMinor terms the subject of the conclusionMiddle terms the term that occurs in both and not at all in the conclusion
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