POL 208 Marxism textbook notes.docx

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Politics and Public Administration
POL 208
Abbas Gnamo

Marxism Pg. 133 Marx’s work retains its relevance despite the collapse of communist party rule in the former Soviet Union Of particular importance is Marx’s analysis of capitalism, which has yet to be bettered Marxist analyses of international relations aim to reveal the hidden workings of global capitalism. These hidden workings provide the context in which international events occur. Pg. 135 Marx himself provided little in terms of a theoretical analysis of international relations His ideas have been interpreted and appropriated in a number of different and contradictory ways, resulting in a number of competing schools of Marxism Underlying these different schools are several common elements that can be traces to Marx’s writings Pg. 137 Marxist theorist have consistently developed an analysis of the global aspects of international capitalism- an aspect acknowledged by Marx, but not developed in capital World-systems theory can be seen as direct development of Lenin’s work on imperialism and the Latin American dependency school. Feminist writers have contributed to the analysis of international capitalism by focusing on the specific role of women Pg. 140 Drawing upon the work of Antonio Gramsci for inspiration, writers within an ‘Italian’ school of international relation have made a considerable contribution t thinking about world politics Gramsci shifted the focus of Marxist analysis more towards super structural phenomena. In particular, he explored the processes by which consent for a particular social and political system was produced and reproduced through the operation of hegemony. Hegemony allows the ideas and ideologies of the ruling stratum to become widely dispersed, and widely accepted, throughout society. Thinkers such as Robert W. Cox have attempted to ‘internationalize’ Gramsci’s thought by transposing several of his key concepts, most notably hegemony, to the global context. Pg. 142 Critical theory has its roots in the work of the Frankfurt school Habermas has argues that emancipatory potential lies in the realm of communication and that radical democracy is the way in which that potential can be unlocked Andrew linklater has developed critical theory themes to argue in favour of the moral boundaries of the political community, and has pointed to the European Union as an example of a post- westphalian institution of governance. Pg. 144 New Marxism is characterized by a direct (re )appropriation of the concepts and categories developed by Marx Rosenberg uses Marx’s ideas to criticize realist theories of international relations, and globalization theory. He seeks to develop and alternative approach that understands historical change in world politics as a reflection of transformation in the prevailing relations of production. For Benno Teshke, the study of social property relations provides the means for analysing the key elements of international relation, and the transition between one international system and another Lecture Notes Marxism and Globalization • Marxists see globalization as a negative process. • for Marxists, globalization is not new process, and it is the latest stage in the development of international capitalism by west • Globalization further deepens the existing divide between the rich and poor countries. Karl Marx(1818-1884) • Dialectical materialism • Historical materialism: historical determinism- the communist manifesto, (1848) • The five modes of production o Primitive o Slave o Feudal o Capitalist and, o Socialist/communist Core of marx’s revolutionary theory Exploitation Contradiction/antagonismclass struggle the overthrow of capitalism the dictator shipconstruction of socialism The advent of communist society, without class, private property, and the state the ultimate goal in the evolution political society Marxism • The characteristics of capitalism include: • A ruling class • The bourgeoisie or capitalists who own the means o
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