PSY 105 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Hypothalamus

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Week 3
Chapter 3:
Neuroscience & Behaviour : Levels of Analysis :
Neurons:
A neuron is made up of three parts: cell body that houses the chromosomes with the organisms DNA and
maintains the health of the cell, dendrites that receive information from other neurons and an axon that
transmits information to other neurons muscles and glands.
Theres small gaps between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another, this gap are
part of synapse: the junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of
another.
Three major types of Neurons:
1. Sensory: receives information from the external world and covey this information to the brain via
the spinal cord
2. Motor: carry’s signals from spinal cord to the muscles to produce movements
3. Interneurons: which connect sensory neurons, motor neurons and other interneurons.
What Are Neurotransmitters?
Are released in the synapse
Is a means of communication between cells
e.g., acetylcholine (memory & learning), dopamine (pleasure, movement), serotonin (mood,
appetite), norephinephrine (mood, sleep), GABA (inhibition), glutamate (memory)
Types of Neurotransmitters:
1. Acetylcholine: a neurotransmitter involved in a number of functions, including voluntary motor
control.
2. Dopamine: that regulates motor behavior, motivation, pleasure and emotional arousal
3. Glutamate: is a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in information transmission
throughout the brain
4. Norepinephrine : a neurotransmitter that influences mood and arousal
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5. Endorphins : are chemicals that act within the pain pathways and emotion centers of the brain
Divisions of the nervous system :
Two major divisions of the nervous system:
1. Central nervous system: is composed of the brain and the spinal cord
2. The peripheral nervous system: connects the central nervous system to the bodys organs and
muscles: the peripheral nervous system itself is then divided into two major sub divisions:
Somatic nervous system: is a set of verves that conveys information into and out of the central nervous
Autonomic nervous system: is a set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that
control blood vessels, body organs and glands. ANS then has two major subdivisions:
Sympathetic: (arousing) is the set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening
situations.
Parasympathetic nervous system: (calming)
Sympathetic system: what occurs?
Dilates pupil
Inhibits salivation
Relaxes lungs
Accelerates heartbeat
Increases sweating
Inhibits digestion
Stimulates epinephrine and norepinephrine
Contracts blood vessels
Relaxes bladder
Stimulates ejaculation in males
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Document Summary

Three major types of neurons: sensory: receives information from the external world and covey this information to the brain via the spinal cord, motor: carry"s signals from spinal cord to the muscles to produce movements. Interneurons: which connect sensory neurons, motor neurons and other interneuron"s. What are neurotransmitters: are released in the synapse. Is a means of communication between cells e. g. , acetylcholine (memory & learning), dopamine (pleasure, movement), serotonin (mood, appetite), norephinephrine (mood, sleep), gaba (inhibition), glutamate (memory) : a neurotransmitter that influences mood and arousal www. notesolution. com: endorphins. : are chemicals that act within the pain pathways and emotion centers of the brain. Somatic nervous system: is a set of verves that conveys information into and out of the central nervous. Autonomic nervous system: is a set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs and glands. Sympathetic: (arousing) is the set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening situations.

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