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Chapter 5

PSY 105 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Encoding Specificity Principle, Anterograde Amnesia, Retrograde Amnesia

Course Code
PSY 105
Tsasha Awong

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Chapter 5
Perspectives of psychology
Memory Systems:
Memory allows us to perform various functions essential to daily living:
Recalling personal experiences
Learning concepts and facts
Recognizing things and people
Acquiring skills and habits
Three Important Processes :
Encoding: The process by which we perceive and bring in information to remember it.
Storing: The process by which we maintain (hold on to) information over time.
Retrieving: The process of bringing to mind information we learned in the past
Sensory Memory Store :
Sensory information is kept in there for a few seconds or less.
A sort of filter of information because if information is not attended to, it will be
Sensory Memory Continued:
Iconic memory: A picture in your mind that decays very quickly
Echoic memory: An echo or sound in our head that decays very quickly.
What Are The Characteristics of Short-Term Memory Store?
-Limited capacity for a short time (e.g., few seconds)
-Information needs to be rehearsed or will be forgotten

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- Working Memory: Maintain information “online when to understand things that are
said, solve problems or manipulate information.
Encoding :
Encoding: The process by which we perceive and bring in information to remember it.
Elaborative encoding vs. visual imagery encoding vs. organizational encoding
PBD: Phonological (or acoustic) coding
BLT : Semantic coding
What Is Long-Term Memory?
Ability to remember extensive amounts of information from a few minutes to a few hours
to decades
Long-term potentiation: Strengthened synaptic connections
Explicit memory
Episodic memory
Semantic memory
Implicit memory
Procedural memory
Implicit vs. Explicit Memory :
Implicit memory:
- No conscious recall but influences our behaviour
- We could show that we know something without being able to explain it verbally. e.g.,
drive a car
Explicit memory:
- Memory/information that we can retrieve consciously. e.g.: the capital of Italy or your
first day of school
Procedural Memory & Priming:
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