Textbook Notes (378,353)
CA (167,126)
Ryerson (11,569)
PSY (877)
PSY 105 (152)
Chapter 6

Week 6 Chapter 6

7 Pages
154 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 105
Professor
Tsasha Awong

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
Chapter 6
Perspectives of Psychology
Names to Remember
Ivan Pavlov
B.F. Skinner
John B. Watson
Albert Bandura
What Is Learning?
Definition : Modification (or change), that is relatively permanent, in behaviours of a
learner.
Exceptions
1) Biological or genetic automatic behaviour: eating, maturation,…
2) Temporary state: Drugs, fatigue
Habituation:
Gradual reduction in responding to an event that repeats itself but that is not important to
the organism.
The simplest form of learning
The aplysia and nematode are able to habituate.
Saves energy and time.
John B. Watson, Father of Modern Behaviourism :
Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural
science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no
essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness
with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness.
www.notesolution.com
John B. Watson
Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in
and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I
might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief,
regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I
am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have
been doing it for many thousands of years.
John B. Watson continued :
Classic study with Rosalie Rayner: Little Albert at 11 months
Association between unpleasant noise & rat
Conditioned emotional response
Generalization of fear to everything that was white and furry
Classical Conditioning :
Pavlov discovered it quite by accident
Dog: hearing the researcher’s walking in the hallway is enough to get them ready
You could replace conditioned by LEARNED
Unconditioned = UNLEARNED or innate or natural
Extinction & Spontaneous Recovery :
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 6 Perspectives of Psychology Names to Remember • Ivan Pavlov • B.F. Skinner • John B. Watson • Albert Bandura What Is Learning? • Definition : Modification (or change), that is relatively permanent, in behaviours of a learner. Exceptions 1) Biological or genetic automatic behaviour: eating, maturation,… 2) Temporary state: Drugs, fatigue Habituation: • Gradual reduction in responding to an event that repeats itself but that is not important to the organism. • The simplest form of learning • The aplysia and nematode are able to habituate. • Saves energy and time. John B. Watson, Father of Modern Behaviourism : “Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness.” www.notesolution.com John B. Watson “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years.” John B. Watson continued : • Classic study with Rosalie Rayner: Little Albert at 11 months – Association between unpleasant noise & rat – Conditioned emotional response – Generalization of fear to everything that was white and furry Classical Conditioning : • Pavlov discovered it quite by accident • Dog: hearing the researcher’s walking in the hallway is enough to get them ready • You could replace conditioned by LEARNED • Unconditioned = UNLEARNED or innate or natural • Extinction & Spontaneous Recovery : www.notesolution.com • Extinction : Elimination of a CR by presentation of the CS without presentation of the US. - It does not mean the association was forgotten! • Spontaneous recovery: Reoccurrence of a response that was extinguished after reintroduction of the CS. Generalisation vs. Discrimination : • Stimulus generalisation: Stimulus similar to CS that causes the CR. • Gradient of generalisation: White rat white rabbit…white cat…cats • Stimulus discrimination : When an organism can distinguish between 2 similar stimuli. e.g., Red and green light, cat vs. lion Experimental Neurosis: • Pavlov: The more 2 stimuli become similar (one is reinforced and the other one isn’t), the dogs were unable to distinguish between them and respond (salivate) when both stimuli are presented. • The dogs become very agitated during the experiment and after. • Conflict of trying to respond to a stimulus and not the other: Pavlov termed this “experimental neurosis”. • In discriminative learning, we need to be able to predict what will happen. • In humans: Inconsistent parental discipline can lead to behavioural difficulties, acting out, …
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit