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Chapter 4

PSY 105 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Occipital Lobe, Monosodium Glutamate, Sensory Neuron


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 105
Professor
Helene Moore
Chapter
4

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CHAPTER 4 - SENSATION PERCEPTION
AFTER IMAGES
If you look at something for a long time, you can get an after image
visual finding has some cells called opponent process cells - it has two opposing colours
to respond to
one colour disappears and you see the opposite colours
OPPONENT - PROCESS THEORY
layer of ganglon cells
we have three types of cells that respond to different colours
if one colour is depleted, you see the opposite colour
oBlack- White
oRed- Green
oYellow - Blue
This theory explains colour vision at the level of gaglion cells
COLOUR SUMMARY
Two complementary theories
oTrichromatic Theory - Stage 1
oOpponent Process Theory - Stage 2
WHAT AND WHERE PATHWAYS
basic information is processed at occipital cortex for visuals
oshows shape, edges and background
What pathway - goes from occipital to temporal cortex
oit is about what it is that you're seeing
Where pathway - goes from occipital to parietal cortex
oit enables us to manipulate objects in space

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WHAT PATHWAY
Visual Agnosia: damage to the "what" pathway, it cannot recognize objects
opeople with this touch or smell will know what the objects are
Prosopagnosia - a form of visual agnosia in which people cannot recognize faces
WHERE PATHWAY
Hemi-neglect: damage to the "where" pathway. In this people ignore one side of their
visual field
people's part of the where pathway is not processed
Example: draw what you see
oa person might neglect some parts of the figure
othere is a damage to right hemisphere to neglect left vision
Ex: apply make-up to one side of the face, eat food on one side of the plate
people with damage to the right side of their "where" pathways neglect the left side
visual
this is a permanent damage
TOP-DOWN PROCESSING
selectively influence what you're going to see
we tend to look for "wholes" not parts of an image
Gestalt Principles:
ovisuals is presented into coherent images
oGestalt means whole or totality
othe whole is more than the sum of its part
we construct the image and use closure as the process
PROXIMITY/SIMILARITY

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PROXIMITY: we group nearby figures together
things that are close together, we tend to think they belong together
SIMILARITY: figures similar to each other are gruped together
when things are similar, people tend to think to form groups by putting things together
that are similar
DEPTH PERCEPTION
two sighted eyes can use binocular cues
CONVERGENCE
oit is a tactile cue and we feel this cue
oit is a movement of muscles
otendency of the eyes to move towards each other as we focus on objects up
close (finger)
RETINAL DISPARITY
odifferent images of objects are cast on the retinas of each eyes
oif you have both eyes, each eye will get a different retinal image (different
position in eyes)
othe images are very different, we perceive objects as if they are close by
owhen images are similar, we perceive objects are farther away
MONOCULAR CUES
cues we can use by closing one of our eye
creating perception in images of depth when there is none
LINEAR PERCEPTION: lines that are parallel converge
TEXTURE GRADIENT: texture is very well defined
ELEVATION: we tend to perceive objects that are farther away, when really the object is
elevated to create that image
INTERPOSITION: it is when an object is covered by another object and is closer to us
MONECULAR CUES AND ILLUSIONS
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