Textbook Notes (378,317)
CA (167,155)
Ryerson (11,569)
PSY (877)
PSY 402 (75)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6 - Attention and Perceptual Processing

4 Pages
108 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 402
Professor
Sohail Rashid

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 4 pages of the document.
The Information-Processing Model
Information Processing: Cognition
Encoding
Storage: short term memory, sensory, long term memory
Cocktail Effect: at a party you here people talking and you block it out but you can hear your name
and you look to find who is saying your name and can only think about what they're saying about
you
Overview of the Model
The information-processing model uses a computer metaphor to explain how people process stimuli.
People are ACTIVE participants in the process.
1.
Both quantitative (how much information is remembered) and qualitative (what kinds of
information are remembered) aspects of performance can be examined.
2.
Information is processed through a series of hypothetical stages, or stores.
3.
The information-processing approach is based on three assumptions:
Sensory Memory
All memories start as sensory stimuli
It takes in large amounts of information very rapidly;
Does not seem to have the limits that other processes do when attentional focus
(concentration) is applied;
It is more like a very brief and almost identical representation of the stimuli that exist in the
observable environment;
i.e. Try drawing either side of a penny in great detail. You probably see pennies every
day, but never paid enough attention to them to processes them to a longer lasting
store.
However, unless we pay attention to this information very quickly, the representation is lost.
Sensory memory is the ability that results from the earliest step in information processing, where
the new, incoming information is first registered.
There are no age differences found in sensory memory. Older adults can effectively retrieve
information briefly represented in sensory memory.
Attention Processes - Types of Attention
Do age differences exist in what information is processed?
Attention is composed of separable dimensions serving different functions.
The complex tasks we engage in usually use more than one attentional function.
Older adults have more difficulty filtering out distractors compared to younger people.
Unfamiliar information is usually processed over familiar information.
Older adults' reaction time is slower and more prone to errors in the presence of
Visual Search tests involve asking participants to find a letter (e.g. "P") on a screen full of
other letters. The task gets more complicated as different letters are used. Tasks like this
always involve responding to a stimulus, the target, and ignoring everything else, the
nontarget. Such tasks measure selective attention because the main data involve
nontarget interference effects (i.e. The degree to which the nontargets interfere with
the ability to respond only to targets)
Selective attention is the way in which we choose in information we will process further. We
are trying to move information from sensory memory to working memory. We have to decide
which stimuli is important, and move this to working memory.
Attention involves at least three interdependent processes: selective attention, divided attention,
and sustained attention.
Chapter 6 - Attention and Perceptual Processing
November-26-10
5:06 PM
Psychology Page 1

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 6 Attention and Perceptual ProcessingNovember2610506 PMThe InformationProcessing ModelInformation Processing CognitionEncoding Storage short term memory sensory long term memoryCocktail Effect at a party you here people talking and you block it out but you can hear your name and you look to find who is saying your name and can only think about what theyre saying about youOverview of the ModelThe informationprocessing model uses a computer metaphor to explain how people process stimuliJust like on a computer information enters peoples brains and is transformed coded and stored in various waysThe informationprocessing approach is based on three assumptionsPeople are ACTIVE participants in the process1Both quantitative how much information is remembered and qualitative what kinds of 2information are remembered aspects of performance can be examinedInformation is processed through a series of hypothetical stages or stores3Sensory MemoryAll memories start as sensory stimuliSensory memory is the ability that results from the earliest step in information processing where the new incoming information is first registeredIt takes in large amounts of information very rapidlyDoes not seem to have the limits that other processes do when attentional focus concentration is appliedIt is more like a very brief and almost identical representation of the stimuli that exist in the observable environmentHowever unless we pay attention to this information very quickly the representation is lostie Try drawing either side of a penny in great detail You probably see pennies every day but never paid enough attention to them to processes them to a longer lasting storeThere are no age differences found in sensory memory Older adults can effectively retrieve information briefly represented in sensory memoryAttention Processes Types of AttentionDo age differences exist in what information is processedAttention is composed of separable dimensions serving different functionsThe complex tasks we engage in usually use more than one attentional functionAttention involves at least three interdependent processes selective attention divided attention and sustained attentionSelective attention is the way in which we choose in information we will process further We are trying to move information from sensory memory to working memory We have to decide which stimuli is important and move this to working memoryOlder adults have more difficulty filtering out distractors compared to younger peopleUnfamiliar information is usually processed over familiar informationVisual Searchtests involve asking participants to find a letter eg P on a screen full of other letters The task gets more complicated as different letters are used Tasks like this always involve responding to a stimulus the target and ignoring everything else the nontarget Such tasks measure selective attention because the main data involve nontarget interference effects ie The degree to which the nontargets interfere with the ability to respond only to targets Older adults reaction time is slower and more prone to errors in the presence ofPsychology Page 1
More Less
Unlock Document


Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit