Textbook Notes (378,720)
CA (167,253)
Ryerson (11,569)
PSY (877)
PSY 434 (14)
Jian Guan (2)
Chapter 18

PSY295 Chapter 18 + Lecture 7.docx

7 Pages
59 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 434
Professor
Jian Guan

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
PSY295 Chapter 18 + Lecture 7
Memory and Amnesia
What is Memory?
-Memory is the ability to capture each successive present moment within the nervous system so that we
are forever changed by it
What is learning and memory?
-Learning Relatively permanent change in an organism’s behaviour as a result of experience
-Memory is the acquisition and retention of, and the ability to retrieve information, personal
experiences and procedures( skills and habits)
Stages in Memory Formation and Retrieval
1. Encoding Processing of incoming information ( STUDY)
Acquisition registers inputs in sensory buffers
Consolidation creation of a strong representation over time
2. Storage the result of acquisition and consolidation (RETENTION)
3. Retrieval utilizes stored information to create a conscious representation or to execute a learned
behaviour ( TEST)
What is memory for?
-Holding onto the details of everyday life
where you parked the car
People
scheduled appointments ...etc.
-Maintaining and manipulating information on-line
Mental arithmetic
Phone numbers
Patient H.M
-Had intractable epilepsy (uncontrollable)
-result of damage to hippocampus and surrounding area
-Seizures began at age 10 and worsened by age 16
-Age 27 Neurosurgery to stop seizures
performed a bilateral removal of medial temporal lobes.
After the surgery, there were some functional consequences
-had memory impairment global amnesia
*BUT
-no language, perceptual or motor deficits, IQ remained the same, intact short term memory, and
remembered who he was
*Essentially, his problem was
-Anterograde amnesia unable to form new long-term memory
-because of the severity, it was referred to as global anterograde amnesia
-Retrograde amnesia NO memory for the 11 years prior to this surgery
--
we all have experienced an amnesia to some degree
forgetting common things ....is infantile amnesia
Short-Term Memory: Sensory
- Lasts a very short period of time ms to s
-Decays rapidly
ichnic sensory memory for visual information
Echoic sensory information for auditory information
-Tested by asking for partial report
STM: Working Memory
-Working memory refers to the capacity to hold information for short periods of time and to use or
manipulate that information in thinking and problem-solving tasks
-2 Components:
-online storage (30s or less)
-Manipulative (executive)
-
Short term information may be related to objects or to movements, these two different kinds of short-
term memory may be related to the ventral(Object recognition) or dorsal (motor) streams of sensory
processing.
STM: Testing Working Memory
-Delayed response paradigm
-Monkeys with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex(DLPFC) lesions perform poorly in this working memory
task
-Working memory depends on intact frontal systems ( DLPFC)
Long-Term Memory
-Long term memories are of three types and are supported by three pathways in the brain
-Implicit memories unconscious nonintentional memory. Ex. Motorskill such as riding a bike or
using language. This is data driven, or “bottom up”. Does not need
higher level cortical process
-Explicit memories Conscious intentional remembering of fact-based semantic memories(2+2
=4) and personal experiences, or episodic memories (what you did
lastnight). Depends on conceptually driven, or “top down” processing in
which a subject reorganize the data to store it. Can be affected by how

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
PSY295 Chapter 18 + Lecture 7 Memory and Amnesia What is Memory? -Memory is the ability to capture each successive present moment within the nervous system so that we are forever changed by it What is learning and memory? -Learning – Relatively permanent change in an organism’s behaviour as a result of experience -Memory – is the acquisition and retention of, and the ability to retrieve information, personal experiences and procedures( skills and habits) Stages in Memory Formation and Retrieval 1. Encoding – Processing of incoming information ( STUDY)  Acquisition – registers inputs in sensory buffers Consolidation – creation of a strong representation over time 2. Storage – the result of acquisition and consolidation (RETENTION) 3. Retrieval – utilizes stored information to create a conscious representation or to execute a learned behaviour ( TEST) What is memory for? -Holding onto the details of everyday life  where you parked the car  People  scheduled appointments ...etc. -Maintaining and manipulating information on-line Mental arithmetic  Phone numbers Patient H.M -Had intractable epilepsy (uncontrollable) -result of damage to hippocampus and surrounding area -Seizures began at age 10 and worsened by age 16 -Age 27 Neurosurgery to stop seizures  performed a bilateral removal of medial temporal lobes. After the surgery, there were some functional consequences -had memory impairment  global amnesia *BUT -no language, perceptual or motor deficits, IQ remained the same, intact short term memory, and remembered who he was *Essentially, his problem was -Anterograde amnesia – unable to form new long-term memory -because of the severity, it was referred to as global anterograde amnesia -Retrograde amnesia – NO memory for the 11 years prior to this surgery -- we all have experienced an amnesia to some degree  forgetting common things ....is infantile amnesia Short-Term Memory: Sensory - Lasts a very short period of time  ms to s -Decays rapidly  ichnic – sensory memory for visual information  Echoic – sensory information for auditory information -Tested by asking for partial report STM: Working Memory -Working memory refers to the capacity to hold information for short periods of time and to use or manipulate that information in thinking and problem-solving tasks -2 Components: -online storage (30s or less) -Manipulative (executive) - Short term information may be related to objects or to movements, these two different kinds of short- term memory may be related to the ventral(Object recognition) or dorsal (motor) streams of sensory processing. STM: Testing Working Memory -Delayed response paradigm -Monkeys with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex(DLPFC) lesions perform poorly in this working memory task -Working memory depends on intact frontal systems ( DLPFC) Long-Term Memory -Long term memories are of three types and are supported by three pathways in the brain -Implicit memories unconscious nonintentional memory. Ex. Motorskill such as riding a bike or using language. This is data driven, or “bottom up”. Does not need higher level cortical process -Explicit memories  Conscious intentional remembering of fact-based semantic memories(2+2 =4) and personal experiences, or episodic memories (what you did lastnight). Depends on conceptually driven, or “top down” processing in which a subject reorganize the data to store it. Can be affected by how information was originally processed. -Emotional memories arousing, vivid, and available on prompting. Similar to implicit, it relies on bottom up processing. Likewise, it has the intentional, top-down element of explicit memory in that the internal cues that we use in processing emotional events can also be used to initiate their spontaneous recall. Generally, long term memory of explicit is Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term memory Explicit Memory (declarative memory Episodic(events) Semantic (facts) -Specific personal -General Knowledge experiences from particular time & place -Flow of info is: inputs from sensory and motor  temporal lobe structures and PFC -The independence of implicit and explicit memory can be demonstrated in other ways as well, especially in normal control subjects. If controls are asked to think about the meaning of a word or the shape of the word, their explicit recall of the word is greatly improved> However, scores on word completion taps on implicit memory and are not affected by this manipulation mentioned above.  this phenomenon is known as Depth-of-processing effect -If subjects are shown a word in one modality ( ex. If they hear the word) and are tested for recall in another modality (ex. They must write the word of identify it by reading), their scores on a word- completion test are greatly reduced However, their explicit recall is little affected. This phenomenon is known as study-test modality shift. Long Term Memory - Episodic Memory Semantic Memory -Personally experienced Events -Facts about the world -Conscious awareness of the -No episodic recollection of the specific circumstances self in time and place surrounding this learning -can recollect details of event -Lacks context -Autobiographical Memory -eg. The eiffle towers is in paris. -eg. Wedding day LTM: Testing Episodic Memory -Autobiographical interview -Brian Levine’s autobiographical studies (on going)  on patient named G.O - Recording personal episodic memories -Recording semantic memories -fMRI -episodic or autobiographic memory consists ofsingular events that a personal recalls. -it is uniquely different from other neurocognitive memory systems in that it enables human beings to remember past personal experiences; basically life experiences centered on the person LTM: Patient K.C - Bilateral hippocampal damage as a result of a motorcycle accident and suffered serious traumatic brain injury, with extensive lesions in multiple cortical and subcortical brain regions including the medial temporal lobes and consequence severe amnesia. -resulted in loss of episodic/autobiographic memory ; but most cognitive capabilities are intact -although all aspects are normal, he however had dense amnesia for personal experiences  thus, cannot recollect any autobiographic events.  this inability covers his whole life, from birth to present -Although he knows and understands either himself or physical time, he has difficulty “time travelling” He canot say what he is g
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit