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Chapter 7

PSY 654 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Memory Consolidation, Free Recall, Retrograde Amnesia


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 654
Professor
Julia Spaniol
Chapter
7

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Chapter 7: Long-Term Memory- Encoding, Retrieval, & Consolidation
Question & Answer / Fill in the blanks
The process that transforms new memories into a state in which they are more resistant
to disruption.
—> Consolidation
A procedure for testing memory in which a participant is presented with cues, such as
words or phrases, to aid recall of previously experienced stimuli.
—> Cued recall
Processing that involves attention to meaning and relating an item to something else.
Deep processing is usually associated with elaborative rehearsal.
—> Deep processing
The idea that the processing that occurs as an item is being encoded into memory can
be deep or shallow. Deep processing involves attention to meaning and is associated
with elaborative rehearsal. Shallow processing involves repetition with little attention to
meaning and is associated with maintenance rehearsal.
—> Depth of processing
Rehearsal that involves thinking about the meaning of an item to be remembered or
making connections between the item and prior knowledge.
—> Elaborative rehearsal
The process of acquiring information and transferring it into memory.
—> Encoding
The principle that we learn information together with its context. This means that
presence of the context can lead to enhanced memory for the information.
—> Encoding specificity
A procedure for testing memory in which the participant is asked to remember stimuli
that were previously presented.
—> Free recall
Memory for material is better when a person generates the material him or herself,
rather than passively receiving it.
—> Generation effect
When amnesia is most severe for events that occurred just prior to an injury and
becomes less severe for earlier, more remote events.
—> Graded amnesia
The idea that memory depends on !how information is encoded, with better memory
being achieved when processing is deep than when processing is shallow. Deep
processing involves attention to meaning and is associated with elaborative rehearsal.
Shallow processing involves repetition with little attention to meaning and is associated
with maintenance rehearsal.
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Chapter 7: Long-Term Memory- Encoding, Retrieval, & Consolidation
Question & Answer / Fill in the blanks
—> Levels of processing theory
The increased firing that occurs in a neurone due to prior activity at the synapse.
—> Long-term potentiation (LTP)
Rehearsal that involves repetition without any consideration of meaning or making
connections to other information.
—> Maintenance rehearsal
The idea that the hippocampus is involved in the retrieval of remote memories,
especially episodic memories. This contrasts with the standard model of memory, which
proposes that the hippocampus is involved only in the retrieval of recent memories.
—> Multiple trace model of consolidation
A learning task in which participants are first presented with pairs of words, then one
word of each pair is presented and the task is to recall the other word.
—> Paired-associate learning
A process that occurs during memory consolidation, in which the hippocampus replays
the neural activity associated with a memory. During reactivation, activity occurs in the
network connecting the hippocampus and the cortex. This activity results in the
formation of connections between the cortical areas.
—> Reactivation
A process proposed by Nader and others that occurs when a memory is retried and so
becomes reactivated. Once this occurs, the memory must be consolidated again, as it
was during the initial learning. This repeat consolidation is reconsolidation.
—> Reconsolidation
The process of remembering information that has been stored in long-term memory.
—> Retrieval
Cues that help a person remember information that is stored in memory.
—> Retrieval cue
Loss of memory for something that happened prior to an injury or traumatic event such
as a concussion.
—> Retrograde amnesia
Memory for a word is improved by relating the word to the self.
—> self-reference effect
Processing that involves repetition with little attention to meaning. Shallow processing is
usually associated with maintenance rehearsal.
—> Shallow processing
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