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PSY 102 (141)
Chapter 1

Psychology – Chapter 1 key terms.docx

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PSY 102
John Turtle

Psychology – Chapter 1 Naïve Realism: Seeing is Believing – Or is it? Naïve realism: the belief that we see the world precisely as it is. “Seeing is believing” and trust our own perspectives of the world. Communalism: The willingness to share our findings with others Disinterestedness : attempt to be objective when evaluating the evidence Confirmation Bias : tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypotheses and neglect or disort evidence that contradicts. Belief perserverance: tendency to stick to our initial beleifs even when they’re contradicted. Scientific skepticism: approach of evaluating all claims with an open mind but insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them Pathological skepticism: tendency to dismiss any claims that contradict our beliefs Oberg’s dictum: premise that we should keep our minds open but not so open that we believe virtually anything. Astrology: pseudoscience that claims to predict people’s personalities and futures from the precise date and time of their birth. Critical Thinking : set of skills for evaluating all claims in an open minded and careful fashion. Falsifiable: capable of being disproved Risky Prediction: a forecast stands a good chance of being wrong Replicability: demand that a study’s findings be duplicated, ideally by independent investigators Correlation- causation fallacy: error of assuming that because one thing is associated with another, it must cause the other Variable : anything that can vary Third-variable problem: case in which a third variable causes the correlation between two variables. Pseudosc
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