Psychology – Chapter 1
Naïve Realism: Seeing is Believing – Or is it?
Naïve realism: the belief that we see the world precisely as it is. “Seeing is believing”
and trust our own perspectives of the world.
Communalism: The willingness to share our findings with others
Disinterestedness : attempt to be objective when evaluating the evidence
Confirmation Bias : tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypotheses and
neglect or disort evidence that contradicts.
Belief perserverance: tendency to stick to our initial beleifs even when they’re
Scientific skepticism: approach of evaluating all claims with an open mind but
insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them
Pathological skepticism: tendency to dismiss any claims that contradict our beliefs
Oberg’s dictum: premise that we should keep our minds open but not so open that
we believe virtually anything.
Astrology: pseudoscience that claims to predict people’s personalities and futures
from the precise date and time of their birth.
Critical Thinking : set of skills for evaluating all claims in an open minded and
Falsifiable: capable of being disproved
Risky Prediction: a forecast stands a good chance of being wrong
Replicability: demand that a study’s findings be duplicated, ideally by independent
Correlation- causation fallacy: error of assuming that because one thing is
associated with another, it must cause the other
Variable : anything that can vary
Third-variable problem: case in which a third variable causes the correlation
between two variables.