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Chapter 5

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PSY 102
Benjamin Dyson

Sleep paralysis: state of being unable to move just after falling asleep or right before waking up (1/3-1/2 uni ppl) - Cause by a distribution in the sleep cycle & is often associated with anxiety or even terror, feelings of vibration. Humming noises, & the eerie sense of menacing figures close to or on top of the immobile person Consciousness: our subjective experience of the world, our bodies, & our mental perspectives The Biology of Sleep - Some say that sleep plays a critical role in memory consolidation; others- its critical for the immune system The Circadian Rhythm: The Cycle of Everyday Life Circadian rhythm: cyclical changes that occur on a roughly 24-hour basis in many biological processes Biological clock: suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus that controls our levels of awareness Melatonin: a hormone that triggers feelings of sleepiness, increases after dark - Most of us need 7-10 hours of sleep, newborns are gluttons for sleep & need 16 hours over the course of a day - More than 4 days of sleep deprivation, we may experience brief hallucinations (hearing voices & seeing things) - Comes with health outcomes: weight gain, increased risk of blood pressure, diabetes, & heart problems Stages of Sleep - Nathaniel Kleitman sleep lab at U of Chicago. Eugene Aserinsky observed eye movements on a sleeping person Rapid eye movement (REM): darting of the eyes underneath closed eyelids during sleep Non-REM (NREM) sleep: stages 1-4, when rapid eye movements do not occur & dreaming is less frequent & vivid Awake: Beta waves Calm wakefulness: Alpha waves 5 stages of sleep: each cycle lasts about 90 minutes: Stage 1: light sleep (lasts 5-10 mins). Brain activity powers down 50% or more, producing theta waves which occur 4-7 times per second. Hypnagogic imagery: scrambled, bizarre, & dreamlike images that flit in & out of consciousness. In this state we are typically confused Stage 2: brain waves slow down more, sudden intense bursts of electrical act ivity – spindles – of about 12-14 cycles per second, & occasionally sharply rising & falling waves; K-complexes (only appear when asleep). Our brain activity decelerates, heart rate slow, body temp decreases, muscles relax & eye movements cease. 65% of sleep is in this stage Stage 3 & 4: after 10-30 mins, light sleep gives away to much deeper slow-wave sleep; delta waves – as slow as 1-2 cycles per second, in the EEG. Stage 3: delta waves appear 20-50% of the time. Stage 4: appear more than half the time. Alcohol makes us feel more tired b/c it suppresses delta sleep Stage 4: REM sleep: after 15-30 mins, we return to stage 2. After 10-20 mins, cycle starts again. Amount of time spend in REM. Every night we circle back to REM 5 or 6 times REM sleep: stage of sleep during which the brain is most active & during which vivid dreaming most often occurs - Hyped brain waves in REM is b/c of increased heart rate & blood pressure, & rapid & irregular breathing - 82% in REM we dream compared to 43% of non-REM (shorter dreams: thought-like & repetitive, & deal with everyday topics of current concern to us; homework, shopping lists) we dream - When we are sleep deprived: REM rebound: amount & intensity of REM sleep increases (in dreams) Middle ear muscle activity (MEMA): muscles of our middle ears become active, almost as though they’re assisting us to hear sounds in the dream Paradoxical sleep: scientist call REM sleep this. The brain is active at the same time the body is inactive - If REM didn’t paralyze us, we’d act out our dreams: REM behaviour disorder (RBD) (very rare) Lucid Dreaming Lucid dreaming: experience of becoming aware that your dreaming - 72% of lucid dreamers felt they controlled what happened in their dreams, compared to 34% non-lucid - Dolphins have 1 hemisphere sleeping with the others eye open, then switches throughout sleep Disorders of Sleep Insomnia: difficulty falling & staying asleep. 9-15% of people report severe or long-standing problems of insomnia. People who suffer depression, pain, or variety of medical conditions. Can take the following forms: a) Having trouble falling asleep (regularly taking more than 30 mins to doze off) b) Waking up too early in the morning c) Waking up during the night & having trouble returning to sleep - Ambien: popular sleeping pill. But caused people to eat, walk, & even drive while asleep. Rebound insomnia: long-standing use of many sleeping pills can create dependency & more difficult to sleep whens pills aren’t used Narcolepsy: disorder – people experience episodes of sudden sleep from few seconds- some mins- maybe hour - Overwhelming urge to sleep can strike at any moment Cataplexy: complete loss of muscle tone Orexin: hormone, plays a key role in triggering sudden attacks of sleepiness Sleep apnea: disorder caused by lockage of the airway during sleep, resulting in daytime fatigue (2-20% of pop.) - lack of oxygen & buildup of carbon dioxide can leads to many things: night sweat, weight gain, fatigue, hearing loss, & irregular heart beat - Associated with being overweight. People wear face masks attached to a machine that blows air into their nasal passages, forcing the airway to remain open Night terrors: sudden waking episodes like screaming perspiring, & confusion followed by returning to a deep sleep. Children mostly have this, but sometimes adults when there are under intense stress Sleepwalking: walking while fully asleep: 15-30% of children, 4-5% of adults. Dreams - Blind peoples dreams visual imagery depends on when they became blind. People blind before age 4 don’t experience visual dream imagery, but those blinded after age 7 do - Researchers found that cultural differences in the age at which child report recalling dreams Evidence from a variety of sources suggests that dream are involved in a) Processing emotional memories b) Integrating new experiences with established memories to make sense of & create a virtual reality model of the world c) Learning new strategies & ways of doing things, like swinging a gold club d) Simulating threatening events so we can better cope with in everyday life e) Reorganizing & consolidating memoires Freud’s Dream Protection Theory - Sided with the First Nations people: believed that dreams revealed hidden wishes & desires - In his landmark book, The Interpretation of Dreams, he described dreams as guardians (protectors) of sleep Dream-work: disguises & contains pesky sexual & aggressive impulses by transforming them into symbols that represent wish fulfillment: how we wish things could be Manifest content: details of the dream itself, & latent content: its true & hidden meaning of a dream - Believed that many or most dreams are sexual in nature, but account for as little as 10% dreams we remember Activation- Synthesis Theory Activation- synthesis theory: (Alan Hobson & Robert McCarely) dreams reflect brain activation in sleep (originating in the pond, which the forebrain then attempts to weave into a story), rather than a repressed
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