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PSY 102 (141)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Notes

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PSY 102
Benjamin Dyson

The beauty and Necessity of Good Research Design Why We Need Research Designs -Research design matters -Prefrontal lobotomy: the surgical procedure that cuts the fibres connecting the frontal lobe from the thalamus. Ex. surgeons said it worked but once tested it was useless. Heuristics & Biases -Heuristics: mental shortcut that helps us to streamline our thinking & make sense of our world -Representativeness heuristic: involves judging the probability of an event by its superficial similarity to a prototype. Ex. Roger is very shy- would you say he majors in communications or comp science? Comp Sci. -Base rate: how common a characteristic or behaviour is in the general population -Availability heuristic: involves estimating the likelihood of an occurrence based on how ‘available’ it is in our minds. Ex. Are there more trees on your schools campus or downtown? You called to mind mental images of your campus & imagined more trees than in downtown. Cognitive Biases -It is: systematic errors in thinking -Hindsight bias: overestimating how well we could have successfully forecasted known outcomes -Overconfidence: overestimating our ability to make correct predictions The Scientific Method: Toolbox of Skills -Scientific method: uses tools that have one thing in common- they permit us to test hypothesis Naturalistic Observations -It is: watching behaviour in real-world settings without trying to manipulate the situation -External validity: findings are relevant to the real world -Internal validity: extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences from a study Case Study Designs -A research design that examines 1 person or a small number of people in depth, over a long period of time -Existence proof: demonstrates that a given psychological phenomenon can occur Self-Report Measures & Surveys -Questionnaires- assesses a variety of characteristics. Surveys- measures people’s opinions & attitudes Random Selection -Every person in the population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate Evaluating Measures -Reliability: consistency of measurement -Interrater reliability: when people who conduct an interview or make behavioural observations agree on the characteristics they’re measuring -Validity: extent to which a measure assesses what it claims to measure -Reliability is necessary for validity- we need to measure something consistently before we measure it well Advantages & Disadvantages of Self-Report measures -Advantage: They’re easy to administer -Disadvantage: they assume that respondents possess enough insight into their personality characteristics to report on them accurately -Response sets: tendency of research participants to distort their responses to questionnaire items -Positive impression management: tendency to make ourselves look better than we are -Malingering: tendency to make ourselves appear psychologically disturbed with the aim of achieving a clear-cut personal goal Rating Data -Halo effect: how ratings of one positive characteristic can influence ratings of another positive characterist. -Horns effect: how ratings of one negative characteristic can influence ratings of another negative character. Correlational Designs -Research design that examines the extent to which 2 variables are associated(co- & relate) Correlations- 2 basic facts (1) -Positive: as the value of one variable changes, then the other goes in the same direction -Zero: Variables don’t go together -Negative: as the value of one variable changes, then the other goes in the opposite direction (2) -(-1.0)- perfect negative correlation. (+1.0)- perfect positive correlation -Absolute value: size of the coefficient without the (+) or (-) sign in front of it. Which way is it going? The Scatterplot -A grouping of points on a 2-dimensional graph- each dots represents a single person’s data Illusory Correlation -Perception of a statisti
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