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Chapter 3

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PSY 102
Niusha Ghazban

Chapter 3 Biological Psychology Part 1 of 2Chapter 3 pg 90109THE BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF BEHAVIOR1Overview2Neural Communication3Brain Structures and Behavioral Functions 4Peripheral Nervous System1OverviewCentral Nervous System CNS connects to your BRAIN and SPINAL CORDPeripheral Nervous System PNS is AUTONOMIC sympathetic parasympathetic which is the automatic reaction and SOMATIC sensations in your fingertips etcA basic premise for most psychology researchers is that the behaviour is ultimately governed although not determined by biologyExamine the brain nervous system glands hormones neurotransmitters etcas well as genetics and evolutionBiological Psychology A study of brain and behavior we want to learn what parts of the brain are used when certain things are said shown heard etc and just how the brain works in generalaka behavioural neuroscienceaka cognitive neurosciencecan be used in treatment to help people who have been in accidents for example2Neural CommunicationBrain contains approximately 100 billion nerve cells cells are called neurons neurons connect to each other so we probably have trillions of connections and this is how messages are relayedRelay messages from sense organs to brainspinal cordRelay signals from brain and spinal cord to musclesBasic neuroanatomy Neurons there should be a diagram in the textbookActual conductors of nerve impulses every thought and action relies on neurons doing their job properlyMany different shapes and sizes but most have a body axon terminal buttonssynaptic knobs and dendrites because there are so many jobs neurons have many different shapes and sizes but there is a general anatomyDifferent types of neurons spinal cord motor neuron which specifically helps us walk and move our arms neurons in our eyes organs etc Most look very intricate like spiderwebsDendrites Extensions that receive absorb information from other neighbouring neurons these dendrites branch out to cover more surface area and have spines that further increase the surface area of these branches to send information to the cell body For example for people with Down Syndrome with an extra chromosome which leads to their dendrites not having as many of these bumps The lack of these spines or having immature spine slows down their ability to receive informationSoma Cell Body Integrates information from dendrites then pass it along the axonAxon Hillock Last site on the soma where synaptic inputs are summed before going down the axon Axon Long extension from soma most axons have a Myelin Sheath1 Myelin Sheath fatty substance that acts as an insulator thereby improving the strength and speed signals going through the axon look like sausage links2 the longest axon in our body extends from our tail bone to our baby toe but can be very short just a few centimetersAxon Terminal Transmit signals to other neurons dendrites cell bodies or muscles 1 At the end of each axon terminal there is a synapseSynapse junction where the axon terminal of sending neuron communicate with a receiving neuron across the synaptic cleft there is actually a space between the postsynapse and the presynapse cleft 160 trillion synapses because of all the connections they can makeSynaptic Cleft space between two neurons where neurotransmitters NTs are released either manufactured on site of the axon terminal or transmitted from the soma and are housed in vesiclesSynaptic Vesicles Spherical sacs containing the neurotransmitters1 small vs large neurotransmitters depending where they are manufactured and where they are located etcGlial cells Support cells in NS that play roles in formation of myelin sheaths and also promotes healing and clear debris just like a cleaning crewdoctorif theres any sort of scars it is the glial cells that help do that10 times more numerous than neuronsMultiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune disease associated with demyelinationthe myelin sheaths are breaking so the axon is no longer insulated and the body starts attacking its own myelin sheaths The glial cells simply cant keep up and as the disease progresses it will eventually hit a major organExamples of specific glial cells1 Schwann cells Peripheral Nervous System2 Oligodendrocytes Central Nervous CellBlood Brain Barrier BBB Glial cells astrocytes wrap a layer around brain blood vessels and capillaries This helps keep out certain chemicals such as any large
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