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Chapter 12

Introducing Psychology Chapter 12

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Ryerson University
PSY 105
Kristin Vickers

CHAPTER 12 -Psychological disorders: Disorders reflecting abnormalities of the mind -thoughts, feelings, emotions, must be persistent, harmful to the person experiencing them, and uncontrollable -40% of people will develop some type of psychological disorder during the course of their lives -Medical Model: conceptualization of psychological disorders as diseases that have symptoms, causes, and cures st -symptom, syndrome, diagnosis (1 step) -L }LšŒ}ooo]ZZšZššlZ}ÀŒ‰ŒZ}L[ZK]L -Statistical deviance Ærare condition, 1/many people, 40% of north americans with struggle with abnormal psychology -Cultural devianceÆ if you are not consistent with what is normal with your culture; looks can be deceiving -Emotional distress Æ -DysfunctionÆ their life quality is impaired INSANITY -Insanity:a legal term in the United States defined as inability to understand that certain actions are wrong at the time of a crime (Canadian: ^L}š Œ]K]LooÇŒZ‰}LZ]o}L }µLš}KLšo]Z}ŒŒ_) -99.9% of people with psychological disorder is not insane -Biological criteria that develops psychological disorderÆ 40% belieÀ]š]ZšZ‰ŒZ}L[Zµoš IMPLICATIONS OF MEDICAL MODEL - weare all vulnerable to psychological disorders, just as we are to biological diseases - Psychological disorders can in some cases be prevented by intervening on risk factors - Psychological disorders can be successfully treated CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL DISORDERS th -DSM-IV-TR: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 edition, text revision, published by the American Psychiatric Association -used for the diagnosis and classification of psychological disorders to give objective, measurable criteria for diagnosing disorders -Culturally related disorders are in an appendix -AxisÆ rating dimension; involve a wide range of factors including medical history, functioning in daily life -Axis I: Psychological disorders; e.g. schizophrenia -Axis II: Personality disorders or mental retardation (life long, persists for entire life); e.g. Schizotypal personality disorder -Axis III: General Medical Conditions: e.g. hypothyroidism-too little activity in ones thyroid gland; slows down metabolism and moody (appears to be like depression), can be treated by given thyroid hormones. Or diabetes. www.notesolution.com -Axis IV: Psychological and environmental problems; e.g. homelessness, divorce, losing jobs -Axis V: Global assessment of functioning scale; scale from 1 to 100 (GAF) used to rate functioning in activities such as school, work, family life (0=does not have enough info to give GAF) -comorbidity: the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual CAUSES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS -diathesis-stress model: person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress. -One has underlined vulnerability (biological), then has a stressful event that triggers -No vulnerabilityÆ low chances of psychological disorders -intervention-causation fallacy: involves the assumption that if a treatment is effective, it must address the cause of the problem (cure does not necessarily point to the cause) CONSEQUENCES OF LABELLING -may have negative consequences -Z}ZLZL[ZZšµÇ~‰ŒšLš}ZÀÀ}] Z -may affect self-concept -Once diagnosis is applied, you get useful info about what you need to save the patient ANXIETY DISORDERS -General anxiety disorder (GAD): unrealistic anxiety lasting over 6 months with 3 or more symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, & s
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