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Chapter 15

Introducing Psychology Chapter 15

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Ryerson University
PSY 105
Kristin Vickers

Chapter 15 THE CULTURAL CONTEXT -Culture: 1) a program of shared rules that govern the behaviour of members of a community 2)a set of beliefs, values, and attitudes shared by most members of that community 3) a way a person identifies themselves THE STUDY OF CULTURE -cultural psychologists -cross-cultural psychologists -Challenges: -methodological -interpreting results -the problem of stereotypes INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM -Individualist Cultures: those in which individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with others -}oo š]À]ZšµošµŒZ9šZ}Z]LÁZ] ZZŒK}LÇÁ]šZ}L[Z2Œ}µ‰]Z‰Œ]Ì}À]L]À]µo2}oZLÁ]ZZZ THE RULES OF CULTURE -non verbal communication -the organization of time -the self and self-identity CULTURE AND INTELLIGENCE -to answer the question of whether someone is smart, you HAVE to understand the cultural environment in which that person lives -attitudes towards academic performance differ -stereotype threat persists ^culture can influence the score you get on a test ^when you are asked about your race before a test, you tend to do worst CULTURE AND SEXUALITY -societies vary dramatically in the conceptions of normal sexuality e.g. Dr Kellogg in U.S., Ammassalik Inuit Society, Sambian society of Papua New Guinea THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CULTURE -people often hold unrealistic goals -they dream of persuading everyone else to be just like them -they envision having all cultures together in perfect harmony without much effort -the sociocultural perspective suggests we would be well-advised instead to -recognize difference -be aware of the possibility for misunderstandings -work together to respect one another www.notesolution.com SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY -harming and helping each otherÆsocial behaviour -influencing others to think, feel and act a particular wayÆ social influence -figuring out what others are like and why they behave as they doÆ social cognition -Social PsychologyÆ they study of the causes and consequences of interpersonal behaviour AGGRESSION -aggression: behaviour whose purpose is to harm another -premeditated (planned) aggression: when people consciously decide to use aggression to achieve their goals -impulsive aggression: when people aggress spontaneously without premeditation -frustration-aggression principle: people aggress when their goals are thwarted ”ŒµZšŒš µZšZÇ]L[š2šÁZššZÇÁLš -violent aggression shown in crime and sports -nonphysical aggression encouraged in business, science, and everyday interpersonal reactions -research shows sex difference in aggressionÆ males are more likely to show aggression, associated with presence of testosterone -Young men are responsible for 97% of the same-sex murders -women are more likely to aggress using social harm -šZ }ŒŒoš]}LšÁL ]šÇ[ZÀŒ2 daytime temperature and its rate of violent crime is so strong and therefore, if the average temperature in the U.S. were to increase by just 2 degrees Fahrenheit, we would observe 50000 more violent crimes per year ALTRUISM AND COOPERATION -Altruism: behaviour that benefits another without benefiting onself -reciprocal altruism: behaviour that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future -cooperation: behaviour by two or more people that leads to mutual benefit -riskyÆ prisoners dilemma (both not confess=both 1 yr in prison, 1 confess= A30 year and B0 years...etc) GROUPS -group: a collection of two or more people who believe they have something in common -prejudice: a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on his or her group membership -discrimination: positive or negative behaviour toward another person based on his or her group membership -Being in groups can cause: -Deindividuation: when immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values - less likely to abide by their own moral rules -Diffusion of responsibility: individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way -social loafing: when people expend less effort when in a group than alone -2Œ}µ‰‰}oŒ]Ìš]}L9šZšLL Ç}Œ2Œ}µ‰[Z]L]š]ooL]L2š}2šZšŒ}L2Œ}ÀŒš]K -K]Æ]L2}šLKlZÀŒÇ}L[Z]L]š]o‰}Z]š]}LZšŒ}L2Œ People who are excluded in a groupÆ anterior cingulate cortex becomes active when you are in physical pain (excluded from a group), right ventral prefrontal cortex is active www.notesolution.com REPRODUCTION -people select their reproductive and sexual partner; women are more selective than men b/c reproduction is more costly for women ÆAttraction -attraction is based on situational, physical and psychological factors -Situational (the physical proximity of the people involved) -mere-exposure effect: the tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure (the closer they are/the more you are exposed to it, the greater chance of liking) -9ZÇZ] o~šZ‰ŒZ}L[Z‰‰ŒL  -Body shape, faces (bilaterally symmetrical), characteristic (males-matu
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