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Chapter 1

PSY105; Chapter 1 - Psychology: Yesterday & Today.docx

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PSY 105
Kristin Vickers

PSY105 | Chapter 1 – Psychology: Yesterday & Today - B.F. Skinner - influential in psychology - one of the major things he did – how humans and animals choose the behaviours they‟re going to engage in (it‟s not about choice) - because they receive rewards - successful outcomes instead of adverse ones - Charles Darwin - natural selection - adaptive characteristics What is Psychology? - scientific study of behavior and mental processes 4 Goals of Psychology - description – describe what people are doing - explanation – why people and animals do what they do - prediction – interested in future, predict what‟s going to happen in terms of people‟s behavior in the future - control – changing the way things are to make things better Levels of Analysis - when studying why a certain behavior or mental process occurs one can study the influences of: - the brain – neural activity (how brain structure & brain cell activity differ from person to person and situation to situation) [ex. using social media – what are the patterns of brain activation as people interact with „friends‟ online?] - the person – emotions, ideas, thoughts (how the content of the individual‟s mental processes form & influence behavior) [ex. are there personality factors that influence how much people use diff types of social media? can online: social support or crisis resources improve people‟s decision making & quality of life?] - the group – friends, family, culture (people tend to conform when in groups) (how behavior is shaped by the social & cultural environments) Psychology’s Roots in Philosophy - many myths & ceremonies developed as a way to describe, explain, predict, & control our reality - philosophy is the study of knowledge & reality - philosophers posed questions & discussed proposed solutions - Hippocrates used direct observation to test his theory of medicine & developed one of the 1 psychological theories – physical & psychological health are influenced by the 4 humors [4 particular forces & the relative balance of them indicates what the person‟s going to be like] – ex. excess of black bile = depression; excess of blood = very joyous, musical, passionate; excess yellow bile = anger; excess flem = very bored, not interested in anything, disengaged with the world Early Days of Psychology - Wilhelm Wundt - founder of psychology - established first psych lab in 1879* (don‟t need to know other dates other than this one in chapter 1) [if it shows up on pp, rmb it] - studied consciousness (looked at where people directed their attention – tune out all other things that are happening and focus on one thing that‟s happening) - started a branch of psych called voluntarism Structuralism - an attempt to identify all of the elements of consciousness - looking within yourself to identify conscious elements; a process called introspection - goal was to describe observable mental processes rather than to explain, predict, or control - founded by Edward Titchener – a student of Wundt - he wanted to be able to see “these are the components that contribute to consciousness” – didn‟t work very well - only movement we‟re going to talk about that doesn‟t exist anymore Functionalism - the belief that mental processes were fluid (“stream of consciousness”) & have purpose - emphasizes the functions of the mind in adapting to a changing environment; included animals & mental disorders in research - founded by William James Psychoanalysis - the belief that people‟s behaviours are based on their unconscious desires & conflicts - founded by Sigmund Freud - he developed a form of therapy that aimed to resolve unconscious conflicts - conscious mind isn‟t very interesting, we should really examine the unconscious mind - he analyzed people‟s dreams - he also relied largely on hypnosis Behaviourism - belief that the scientific investigation of psychology should be focused only on behavior you can observe - founded by - Ivan Pavlov - studied animals and stimulus - “tried to prove that dogs salivate because of food”, rang a bell and then he‟d bring the food in - after repeated trials, the dog generated saliva even before the food came, when he heard the bell - it w
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