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Appendix A.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 105
Professor
Kristin Vickers
Semester
Fall

Description
Appendix A: The Psychoanalytic Perspective -The psychoanalytic model was formulated by Sigmund Freud at the beginning of the 20 th century. In Freud’s view, psychoanalytic view, the personality forms as a result of struggles b/w primal needs & social/moral restrains. All his theories are psychodynamic b/c of his notion that personality & behaviour are shaped by interacting/dynamic underlying processes. The Structure of Personality -Three levels of consciousness contain the info stored in our minds but most of that info are stored in our unconscious: conscious (thoughts & feelings we are aware of at any moment), preconscious (thoughts, memories & ideas that can be brought into the conscious if needed) & unconscious (contains most of the content of our minds that we are unaware of & can’t become aware except under special circumstances; particularly important in development of personality). -There are 3 central forces in personality development: basic instinctual drives (id), rational thoughts (ego) & moral limits (superego): -Id=present at birth, represents basic drives & desires, eg. eating, sleeping, sex & comfort; these are governed by the pleasure principle, ie. They constantly drive for gratification. Appendix A: The Pyschoanalytic Perspective -The psychoanalytic model was formulated by Sigmund Freud at the beginning of the 20 th century. He takes on a psychoanalytic view, the personality forms as a result of struggles b/w primal needs & social/moral restraints. All theories that have the basic notion that personality & behaviour are shaped by interacting/dynamic underlying forces are called psychodynamic theories. The Structure of Personality -There are 3 levels of consciousness which contain the info stored in our minds but most of the info are stored in our unconscious: conscious (thoughts & feelings we are aware of at any given moment), preconscious (thoughts, memories & ideas that can be brought into the conscious if needed) & the unconscious (contains most of the content in our minds that we are unaware of or can’t become aware except under special circumstances; particularly important in the development of personality). -There are 3 central forces in personality development: basic instinctual drives (id), rational thoughts (ego) & moral limits (superego) -Id=present at birth & represents basic drives & desires, eg. eating, sleeping, sex & comfort; these impulses are governed by the pleasure principle, ie. They constantly strive for gratification. He believed that most of these have libido (sexual overtones/energy) which fuels id. Id is immature & childlike b/c its simple & urgent; resides largely in the unconscious & not readily available to consciousness. -Ego=develops as a result of learning as children get older & governed by the reality principle, ie. Being aware that it’s not always possible/acceptable to have all wants & desires met. The ego is also responsible for satisfying impulses, but first assesses what is realistically possible & what the social consequences of the gratification may be. He saw the ego as the rational, problem-solving force that prevents id-based impulses from going out of control. Freud believe the ego works both consciously & unconsciously. -Superego=forms during childhood & determines which impulses are acceptable to openly express & which are unacceptable. Develops as children internalize/consciously adopt the values, norms in behaviours observed around them & then begin to evaluate themselves based on this. The superego std’s of right & wrong comprises our moral code & remain stable through life thus it might be thought to be our conscience—one that makes us feel guilty & sometimes anxiety. Superego exists in the un/conscious. -The ego is the balancing force b/w the id & superego, ie. Balancing powerful desires of the id w/ moral stds of the superego; Freud believed these 3 are always in some form of conflict which usually occurs at the unconscious level & if the conflict is not resolved, it may lead to personality problems/even psychological disorders. Freud’s Psychosexual stages -Children move through stages of personality development which are influenced by sexuality & aggression; these 2 drives are most likely the ones to cause conflict b/w they’re the ones that fall under social & moral constraints & mostly left unsatisfied. These stages are called the psychosexual stages: Stage Erogenous Zone Key conflict Symptoms of fixation Oral (0-18months) Mouth Weaning Dependency on pleasures of the mouth;
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