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Chapter 1

PSY105 Notes ch.1.docx

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PSY 105
Kristin Vickers

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PSY105 Notes: Test #1 Chapter 1: Psychology Yesterday & Today • Psychology – Mental processes and behavior • Philosophy – knowledge and reality 4 goals of psychology 1. Describe 2. Explain 3. Predict 4. Control 3 Levels of analysis 1. The brain – neural activity 2. The person – emotions, thoughts 3. The group – family, friends, culture • Hippocrates & the 4 humors o First to make a theory out of observation o Blood – sanguine (happy, love) o Yellow Bile – choleric (angry, aggressive) o Black Bile – melancholic (depressive, sad) o Phlegm – phlegmatic (calm, unemotional) • Wilhelm Wundt & student Edward Titchener o Founder of psychology & first psychology lab (1879) o Structuralism – collection of sensory experiences, mental processes  Trying to develop core characteristics of the human thought  process through introspection • Introspection: was to ask each patient what they were  thinking  The study failed because of diverse findings with introspection  Only aimed to describe not to do any of the other 4 objectives of  psychology  Flaw #1: only aimed to describe  Flaw #2: assuming people will describe things the same way o Voluntarism – will is the dominant factor in the individual (as opposed to  intellect) • William James o Functionalism – mental processes are a “stream of consciousness”, have  purpose  o Usefulness of psychology (i.e. telegraph investigation), sparked  educational psychology o Functions of the mind adapt to changing environment  o Animals, mental disorders, first U.S. psychology lab & textbook  “Principles of Psychology”
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