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Chapter 2

PSY105 - chapter 2

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PSY 105
Kristin Vickers

Chapter 2What is a science Two core beliefs of science 1The universe operates according to certain natural laws 2Such laws are discoverable and testable The scientific method Scientific method relies upon a process of logical reasoning derived from philosophySir Francis BaconThe first to emphasize that science should seek to minimize biasesa personal beliefs or conventional wisdom that a particular thinker mistakenly accepts as board basic truths Argue that to avoid biases science and philosophy should use controlled direct observations to generate broad conclusions Over time such conclusions are combined to achieve nonbiased truths about the laws of the universe He had an idea that temperature enables us to preserve food He created the worlds first frozen chickenPsychologists begin the search for natural laws by making empirical able to be tested in objective ways or objectively testable observations of mental processes and behaviours Their observations in turn lead them to develop theoriesideas about the laws that govern phenomena Karl Popper Stressed that a sound theory must be able to be proven false it must be falsifiable has to have many outcomes To test the soundness of their theories researchers create hypotheses specific statements that are objectively falsifiable that is they can be disprovedExample if a physician generated a hypothesis based on the theory of cause and effect which states that after hitting a baseball with a bat the ball to move in a new direction If researchers were then to discover that baseballs keep going straight into the catchers mitt even after being hit the hypothesis would be disapproved and scientists would have to reconsider their theory of the law of cause and effect To produce a theory a scientific approach would involve 1Make observation 2Develop hypotheses 3Test hypotheses 4Build a theory How do psychologists conduct research 1 State a hypothesis After making observations researchers need to generate a prediction hypothesisIn a hypothesis one thing results in another thing The two things are called Variablesa condition event or situation that is studied in an experiment Two important variables in a study Independent variable IVthe variable that can be manipulated The researches sets loose to see that changes it will cause Dependent variable DVthe variable being measured or what is being affected
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