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PSY 302
Sohail Rashid

Chapter 14March26101248 PMThe Development of AggressionWhat qualifies as aggression Actors intent that defines an act as aggressive not the acts consequences Encompasses all acts in which harm was intended but not doneDivided into two categoriesHostile aggression perpetrators goal is to harm or injure a victimInstrumental aggression perpetrators goal is to gain access to objects space or privilegesOrigins of Aggression in Infancy1yearolds can be quite forceful with each other2yearolds are most likely to resolve disputes by negotiating and sharing than by fightingConflictscan be used as training grounds for children to learn social skillsDevelopmental Trends in AggressionTemper tantrums tend to end around 2 and 3 as children begin to physically retaliatePhysical aggression declines between the ages of 3 and 5 to be replaced by social aggression teasing tattling name calling etcSome level of aggression is relatively normal in early toddlerhood but for most children this goes away by middle childhoodA small group of children with aggression problems stay relatively stable throughout lifeOver the course of middle childhood children learn to settle disputes in amicable ways yet hostile aggression increases slightlyThis happens because children become able to distinguish hostile intent and they sometimes strike back at the wrongdoerElementary school children often view this retaliatory aggressionas a normal responseSex DifferencesData reveals boys and men are more physically and verbally aggressive on average than womenHigher levels of testosterone may contributeGendertyping and social influences Researchers may not have considered other types of aggression that girls may engage in just as often as boys From Aggression to Antisocial ConductIncidence of fighting and other overteasily detectable forms of aggression continues to decline from middle childhood throughout adolescenceAdolescents engage in antisocial behaviour ie Assault theft substance abuseRelational aggression ie Snubbing exclusion etc in girls becomes more malicious and subtleBoys are more inclined to express their angerand frustrations indirectlyIs Aggression a Stable AttributeAggressive moody behaviour between 3 and 10 is a fairly good predictor of their aggressive or other antisocial inclinations later in lifedoes not necessarily imply that all highly aggressive kids remain highly aggressive over timeCan be due to the fact that genetically predisposed aggressive kids always evoke negative reactions from othersOther children remain highly aggressive because they are raised in a home that nurtures aggressive behaviourIndividual Differences in Aggressive BehaviourOnly a small percentage of kids can be described as chronically aggressiveIn groups aggressors are just a handful of highly aggressive kids who bully 1015 of their peers Child Psychology Page 1
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