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Chapter 10

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Ryerson University
PSY 308
Dana Williams

PSY308 CHAPTER 10 CREATIVITY Creativity:  When you produce an outcome or a product that is both unusual and appropriate  Defined by 2 aspects of its consequence (novelty and quality) and not the process that led to the consequence  Exists in degrees – any action or that can be more or less creative  Exists in the eyes of the beholder (different judgement)  Gardner – the individual regularly resolves problems or fashions products that are creative - Removes ‘luck’ from the creative process Lateral & Vertical Thinking  Vertical – thinking about the problem straightforward, carefully, logically  Lateral – a way of thinking around a problem  Lateral generates the ideas and vertical is the improvement of the existing ideas  Creative genius – belief that even great creative products can be produced by almost anyone with at least slightly above-average intelligence and expertise in a discipline is gaining in popularity The 3 S’s  Sensitivity  the use of our senses “windows to the world” that we use to touch, smell, taste and see - Creativity involves the nticing or remembering of some critical aspect of the env or a problem that is overlooked  Synergy  the bringing together of seemingly disparate parts into a useful and functioning whole (surprising combination of elements) - Similar to bisociative thinking – 2 previously unconnected ‘frames of reference’ are amalgamated  Serendipity  an unexpected discovery that is unplanned Investment theory  creative ppl will make unusual decisions about the topics and products they are willing to invest their own time and effort in - Buy low sell high – creative ppl invest in unpopular topics and move onto another unpopular topic when the first one gains in popularity Systems Approach  it is the confluence of many diff types of variables that make creativity more or les probable - Creative person is central to process but works in a domain of knowledge and the contributions of an individual to a domain are judged by the ppl in the field (arts critics, funding agencies, magazines, etc) Creativity as a Cognitive Process *(problem solving)  Paradigm o Used as a pattern o Unusual way of thinking or responding o Stretching or rejecting  The problem of Problem Definition o Recognizing problems that no one else sees “problem finders”  Selecting Relevant Information o Selection of relevant info to help you reach a goal is related to your knowledge of the problem space (topic) o Lateral thinking id another term for redefining the problem  Generation, Exploration and Evaluation o Geneplore – repeated cycles of generation and exploration that are part of every problem- solving process o Intimate engagement – willingness to work on a problem – close link btw hard wrk, time on a task, motivation, and willingness to explore possibilities o Evaluation is important bc the problem solver must be able to recognize when a good solution has been obtained o Memory is important  Insight and Incubation o Insight – the sudden awareness of a solution o Incubation – the period of time when an individual is not actively working on a problem that is followed by a successful solution o Interconnectedness of knowledge (i.e. all knowledge of flowers connects with knowledge of sun and water) o People with large knowledge nets will have more places for the activation to spread o Good problem solvers know how to search through a large problem space to make it an efficient process.  Analogical Thinking o We reason analogically when e make a decision about something new in our experience by drawing a parallel to something old  Making the Familiar Strange o Reverse process of creative results o The usual function of analogies is to make the unfamiliar familiar o 4 types: personal, direct, symbolic and fantasy o Bionics  a special type of analogy that relies pm analogies from nature that can be adapted to human problems  Remote Associations Test o Rests on the notion that creative ppl can form connections between seemingly very different topics o Test takers are given three words and are asked to come up with a fourth word that relates to all 3 (i.e. RIVER NOTE BLOOD – relational work = bank – river bank, bank note, blood
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