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Week 10 - Emotion

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PSY 324
Ayesha Khan

Week 10 EmotionDecember1311933 PMEmotions as Response PatternsAn emotional response consists of three types of components behavioural autonomic and hormonalThe behaviouralcomponent consists of muscular movements that are appropriate to the situation that elicits themAutonomicresponses facilitate the behaviours and provide quick mobilization of energy for vigorous movementHormonalresponses reinforce the autonomic responsesFearThe components described above are controlled by separate neural systems The integration of the The Anatomy of the Amygdalacomponents of fear appears to be controlled by the amygdalaResearch with Laboratory AnimalsThe amygdala plays a special role in physiological and behavioural reactions to objects and situations that have biological significance including those that warn of pain or other unpleasant consequencesSingle neurons inside the amygdala become activated when emotionally relevant stimuli are presentedAmygdala is involved in the effects of olfactory stimuli on reproductive physiology and behaviour The amygdala also plays a role in organizing emotional responses produced by aversive stimuliAmygdala is located in the temporal lobes consisting of several groups of nuclei with different inputs and outputs and with different functionsLateral nucleus receives information from all regions of the neocortex including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex thalamus and hippocampal formationThe lateral nucleus sends information to the basal nucleus and to other parts of the brain including the ventral striatum remember reinforcing stimuli on learning and the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus whose projection region is the preforntal cortexThe lateral nucleus and basal nucleus send information to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the central nucleus which projects to regions of the hypothalamus midbrain pons and medulla that are responsible for the expression of the various components of emotional responses Activation of the central nucleus elicits a variety of emotional responses behavioural autonomic and hormonalDamage to the central nucleus reduces or abolishes a wide range of emotional behaviours and physiological responses A few stimuli automatically activate the central nucleus of the amygdala and produce fear reactions loud unexpected noises approach of large animals heights and specific sounds or odors Even more important is the ability to learn that a particular stimulus or situation is dangerous or threateningThe most basic form of emotional learning is a conditioned emotional responsewhich is produced by a neutral stimulus that has been paired
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